Bioavailability of orange juice (poly)phenols: the impact of short-term cessation of training by male endurance athletes

Pereira-Caro, G., Polyviou, T., Ludwig, I. A., Natase, A.-M., Moreno-Rojas, M., Garcia, A. L. , Malkova, D. and Crozier, A. (2017) Bioavailability of orange juice (poly)phenols: the impact of short-term cessation of training by male endurance athletes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(3), pp. 791-800. (doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.149898) (PMID:28747329)

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Background: Physical exercise has been reported to increase the bioavailability of citrus flavanones. Objective: To investigate the bioavailability of orange juice (OJ) (poly)phenols in endurance-trained men before and after cessation of training for 7 days. Design: Ten fit endurance-trained males, with a maximal oxygen consumption of 58.2 ± 5.3 mL/kg/min, followed a low (poly)phenol diet for 2 d before drinking 500 mL of OJ, containing 398 µmol of (poly)phenols of which 330 µmol were flavanones. After the volunteers stopped training for 7 days the feeding study was repeated. Urine samples were collected 12 h pre- and 24 h post-OJ orange consumption. Bioavailability was assessed by the quantitative analysis of urinary flavanone metabolites and (poly)phenol catabolites using HPLC-HR-MS. Results: While training, 0-24 h urinary excretion of flavanone metabolites, mainly hesperetin-3-O-glucuronide, hesperetin-3´-sulfate, naringenin-4´-O-glucuronide, naringenin-7-O-glucuronide, was equivalent to 4.2% of OJ flavanone intake. This increased significantly to 5.2% when OJ was consumed after the volunteers stopped training for 7 days. Overall, this trend, although not significant, was also observed with OJ-derived colonic catabolites which after supplementation in the trained state were excreted in amounts equivalent to 51% of intake compared to 59% after cessation of training. However, urinary excretion of three colonic catabolites of bacterial origin, most notably, 3-(3´-hydroxy-4´-methoxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid, did increase significantly when OJ was consumed post- compared to pre-cessation of training. Data were also obtained on inter-individual variations in flavanone bioavailability. Conclusion: A 7-day cessation of endurance training enhanced, rather than reduced, the bioavailability of OJ flavanones. The biological significance of these differences and, whether or not they extend to the bioavailability of other dietary (poly)phenols, remains to be determined. Hesperetin-3´-O-glucuronide and the colonic microbiota-derived catabolite 3-(3´-hydroxy-4´-methoxyphenyl)hydracrylic acid are key biomarkers of the consumption of hesperetin-O-glycoside-containing OJ and other citrus products.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:G.P.-C. was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from IFAPA (Programa Operativo del Fondo Social Europeo 2007−2013 de Andalucía). I.L was supported by a postdoctoral research contract from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (FJCI-2014-20689), otherwise the study received no external funding.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Malkova, Dr Dalia and Crozier, Professor Alan and Garcia, Dr Ada and Ludwig, Ms Iziar and Polyviou, Dr Thelma
Authors: Pereira-Caro, G., Polyviou, T., Ludwig, I. A., Natase, A.-M., Moreno-Rojas, M., Garcia, A. L., Malkova, D., and Crozier, A.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Publisher:American Society for Nutrition
ISSN (Online):1938-3207
Published Online:26 July 2017
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 American Society for Nutrition
First Published:First published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 791(3):791-800
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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