Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia

Dagnachew, S., Tsegaye, B., Awukew, A., Tilahun, M., Ashenafi, H., Rowan, T., Abebe, G., Barry, D. J., Terefe, G. and Goddeeris, B. M. (2017) Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance in tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia. Parasite Epidemiology and Control, 2(2), pp. 40-49. (doi: 10.1016/j.parepi.2017.02.002)

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The Northwestern region of Ethiopia is affected by both tsetse and non-tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis with a significant impact on livestock productivity. The control of trypanosomosis in Ethiopia relies on either curative or prophylactic treatment of animals with diminazene aceturate (DA) or isometamidium chloride (ISM). In the present work; questionnaire survey, cross-sectional and experimental studies were carried out to; a) assess the utilization of trypanocidal drugs; b) determine the prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and; c) assess the drug resistant problems respectively in Tsetse and non-tsetse infested areas on NW Ethiopia. A total of 100 respondents were included for the survey and the questionnaires focused on the drug utilization practices for the control of Trypanosomosis. Blood from cattle 640 (324 cattle tested in 2011, 316 cattle tested in 2012) and 795 (390 cattle tested in 2011, 405 cattle tested in 2012) were examined from tsetse infested and non-tsetse infested areas respectively using the buffy coat technique and thin blood smear for the detection of trypanosomes and measurement of packed cell volume (PCV). For the assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance three isolates, one from tsetse (TT) and two from non-tsetse (NT) areas were used on thirty six trypanosome naïve calves. The experimental animals were divided randomly into six groups of six animals (TT-ETBS2-DA, TT-ETBS2-ISM, NT-ETBD2-DA, NT-ETBD2-ISM, NT-ETBD3-DA and NT-ETBD3-ISM), which were infected with T. vivax isolated from a tsetse-infested or non-tsetse infested area with 2 × 106 trypanosomes from donor animals, and in each case treated with higher dose of DA or ISM. The results of the questionnaire survey showed trypanosomosis was a significant animal health constraint for 84% and 100% of the farmers questioned in non-tsetse and tsetse infested areas of Northwest Ethiopia respectively. Responses on trypanocidal drug utilization practices indicated that risk factors for the development of drug resistance are common and treatment failures are frequently seen. Accordingly, the majority of farmers in tsetse infested area get trypanocides from drug stores and unauthorized sources whereas those from non-tsetse area get from veterinary clinics. Moreover, treatment administration is mainly by animal health personnel and treatment frequency is a maximum of three times/year/animal in non-tsetse area whereas it is administered mainly by the farmers more than seven times/year/animal in tsetse infested area. The prevalence of trypanosomosis varied from 17.59% in 2011 to 25.0% in 2012 in tsetse infested areas with a significant (P = 0.023) difference. Similarly, in non-tsetse infested area the prevalence was varied from 3.85% in 2011 to 5.93% in 2012 without significant rise. Trypanosoma congolense (75%) was the most prevalent followed by T. vivax (20.58%) and mixed infections (4.41%) in tsetse infested area while in non-tsetse infested area only T. vivax was detected. The overall mean PCV in parasitaemic animals (20 ± 2.3 SD) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than that of aparasitaemic animals (27 ± 4.3 SD). The assessment of trypanocidal drug resistance tests revealed one isolate of non-tsetse infested area against DA in group NT-ETBD2-DA is resistant to the higher dose used with 3 relapsing animals (50% relapses) in the group. Another two relapses were detected one against ISM for the isolate from tsetse infested area (TT-ETBS2-ISM) and one against DA for another isolate (NT-ETBD3-DA) from the non-tsetse area. In conclusion, trypanosomosis is widely prevalent in both study areas causing significant reduction in the mean PCV values. Farmers' trypanocidal utilization practices appear to pose risks of drug resistance problems. The in vivo drug resistance tests indicated the presence of resistant parasites with the higher dose against DA for NT-ETBD2 isolate and suspected resistance problems were detected against ISM and DA for TT-ETBS2 and NT-ETBD3 isolates respectively. Therefore, trypanosomosis is a major constraint in Northwest Ethiopia and drug resistance is a threat in the control of trypanosomosis in both study areas.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This work was funded by Ethio-Belgium VLIR project, GALVmed and the thematic research project ‘Animal Health Improvement’ of Addis Ababa University.
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Barry, Professor J
Authors: Dagnachew, S., Tsegaye, B., Awukew, A., Tilahun, M., Ashenafi, H., Rowan, T., Abebe, G., Barry, D. J., Terefe, G., and Goddeeris, B. M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Infection & Immunity
Journal Name:Parasite Epidemiology and Control
Published Online:24 February 2017
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd on behalf of World Federation of Parasitologists
First Published:First published in Parasite Epidemiology and Control 2(2): 40-49
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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