De facto states: survival and disappearance (1945-2011)

Florea, A. (2017) De facto states: survival and disappearance (1945-2011). International Studies Quarterly, 61(2), pp. 337-351. (doi: 10.1093/isq/sqw049)

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De facto states—polities, such as Abkhazia (Georgia) or the Donetsk People’s Republic (Ukraine), that appropriate many trappings of statehood without securing the status of full states—have been a constant presence in the postwar international order. Some de facto states, such as Northern Cyprus, survive for a long period of time. Others, including Tamil Eelam in Sri Lanka, are forcefully reintegrated into their parent states. Still others, such as Aceh in Indonesia, disappear as a result of peacemaking. A few, such as Eritrea, successfully transition to full statehood. What explains these very different outcomes? I argue that four factors account for much of this variation: the extent of military assistance that separatists receive from outside actors, the governance activities conducted by separatist insurgents, the fragmentation of the rebel movement, and the influence of government veto players. My analysis relies on an original dataset that includes all breakaway enclaves from 1945 to 2011. The findings enhance our understanding of separatist institutional outcomes, rebel governance, and the conditions that sustain nonstate territorial actors.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Florea, Dr Adrian
Authors: Florea, A.
College/School:College of Social Sciences > School of Social and Political Sciences > Central and East European Studies
Journal Name:International Studies Quarterly
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN (Online):1468-2478
Published Online:23 March 2017
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2017 Oxford University Press
First Published:First published in International Studies Quarterly 61(2):337-351
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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