Effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on proteinuria and progression of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Currie, G. et al. (2016) Effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists on proteinuria and progression of chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Nephrology, 17, 127. (doi: 10.1186/s12882-016-0337-0) (PMID:27609359) (PMCID:PMC5015203)

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Background: Hypertension and proteinuria are critically involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease. Despite treatment with renin angiotensin system inhibition, kidney function declines in many patients. Aldosterone excess is a risk factor for progression of kidney disease. Hyperkalaemia is a concern with the use of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. We aimed to determine whether the renal protective benefits of mineralocorticoid antagonists outweigh the risk of hyperkalaemia associated with this treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis investigating renoprotective effects and risk of hyperkalaemia in trials of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in chronic kidney disease. Trials were identified from MEDLINE (1966–2014), EMBASE (1947–2014) and the Cochrane Clinical Trials Database. Unpublished summary data were obtained from investigators. We included randomised controlled trials, and the first period of randomised cross over trials lasting ≥4 weeks in adults. Results: Nineteen trials (21 study groups, 1 646 patients) were included. In random effects meta-analysis, addition of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists to renin angiotensin system inhibition resulted in a reduction from baseline in systolic blood pressure (−5.7 [−9.0, −2.3] mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (−1.7 [−3.4, −0.1] mmHg) and glomerular filtration rate (−3.2 [−5.4, −1.0] mL/min/1.73 m2). Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism reduced weighted mean protein/albumin excretion by 38.7 % but with a threefold higher relative risk of withdrawing from the trial due to hyperkalaemia (3.21, [1.19, 8.71]). Death, cardiovascular events and hard renal end points were not reported in sufficient numbers to analyse. Conclusions: Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonism reduces blood pressure and urinary protein/albumin excretion with a quantifiable risk of hyperkalaemia above predefined study upper limit.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Taylor, Dr Alison and Currie, Dr Gemma and Mark, Professor Patrick and Preiss, Dr David and Delles, Professor Christian and Jardine, Professor Alan
Authors: Currie, G., Taylor, A. H.M., Fujita, T., Ohtsu, H., Lindhart, M., Rossing, P., Boesby, L., Edwards, N. C., Ferro, C. J., Townend, J. N., van den Meiracker, A. H., Saklayen, M. G., Oveisi, S., Jardine, A. G., Delles, C., Preiss, D. J., and Mark, P. B.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Cardiovascular & Metabolic Health
Journal Name:BMC Nephrology
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN (Online):1471-2369
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2016 The Authors
First Published:First published in BMC Nephrology 17: 127
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
573932PRIORITY: Intervention study for the prevention of diabetic nephropathyChristian DellesEuropean Commission (EC)279277RI CARDIOVASCULAR & MEDICAL SCIENCES