Regular breakfast consumption and Type 2 Diabetes risk markers in 9- to 10-year-old children in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE): a cross-sectional analysis

Donin, A. S., Nightingale, C. M., Owen, C. G., Rudnicka, A. R., Perkin, M. R., Jebb, S. A., Stephen, A. M., Sattar, N. , Cook, D. G. and Whincup, P. H. (2014) Regular breakfast consumption and Type 2 Diabetes risk markers in 9- to 10-year-old children in the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE): a cross-sectional analysis. PLoS Medicine, 11(9), e1001703. (doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001703)

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Abstract

Background: Regular breakfast consumption may protect against type 2 diabetes risk in adults but little is known about its influence on type 2 diabetes risk markers in children. We investigated the associations between breakfast consumption (frequency and content) and risk markers for type 2 diabetes (particularly insulin resistance and glycaemia) and cardiovascular disease in children.

Methods and Findings: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 4,116 UK primary school children aged 9–10 years. Participants provided information on breakfast frequency, had measurements of body composition, and gave fasting blood samples for measurements of blood lipids, insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). A subgroup of 2,004 children also completed a 24-hour dietary recall. Among 4,116 children studied, 3,056 (74%) ate breakfast daily, 450 (11%) most days, 372 (9%) some days, and 238 (6%) not usually. Graded associations between breakfast frequency and risk markers were observed; children who reported not usually having breakfast had higher fasting insulin (percent difference 26.4%, 95% CI 16.6%–37.0%), insulin resistance (percent difference 26.7%, 95% CI 17.0%–37.2%), HbA1c (percent difference 1.2%, 95% CI 0.4%–2.0%), glucose (percent difference 1.0%, 95% CI 0.0%–2.0%), and urate (percent difference 6%, 95% CI 3%–10%) than those who reported having breakfast daily; these differences were little affected by adjustment for adiposity, socioeconomic status, and physical activity levels. When the higher levels of triglyceride, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein for those who usually did not eat breakfast relative to those who ate breakfast daily were adjusted for adiposity, the differences were no longer significant. Children eating a high fibre cereal breakfast had lower insulin resistance than those eating other breakfast types (p for heterogeneity <0.01). Differences in nutrient intakes between breakfast frequency groups did not account for the differences in type 2 diabetes markers.

Conclusions: Children who ate breakfast daily, particularly a high fibre cereal breakfast, had a more favourable type 2 diabetes risk profile. Trials are needed to quantify the protective effect of breakfast on emerging type 2 diabetes risk.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Sattar, Professor Naveed
Authors: Donin, A. S., Nightingale, C. M., Owen, C. G., Rudnicka, A. R., Perkin, M. R., Jebb, S. A., Stephen, A. M., Sattar, N., Cook, D. G., and Whincup, P. H.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:PLoS Medicine
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1549-1676
ISSN (Online):1549-1676
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2014 The Authors
First Published:First published in PLoS Medicine 11(9):e1001703
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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