One-step air bridge fabrication technique using 3D e-beam lithography

Papageorgiou, V., Khalid, A. and Cumming, D. R.S. (2013) One-step air bridge fabrication technique using 3D e-beam lithography. In: MNE2013: 39th International Conference on Micro and Nano Engineering, London, UK, 16-19 Sept. 2013,




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A new technique is demonstrated for the realisation of air bridges using one lithographic step. Gray scale lithography is used for the formation of 3D profiles on polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) where a variable dose exposure is applied to create a trapezoid profile for the air bridge. In previous 3D electron beam lithography (EBL) methods the span area was exposed to a low dose or a low acceleration voltage [1,2,3]. Thus, the required discontinuity with the surrounding area for the lift-off process was created. In this technique, no exposure of the span area is needed. Another exposure of a gradient dose is applied to the sides of the highest part of the air bridge. The created profile, after developing the resist, is depicted in Figure 1. The surfaces with red and blue colour represent the metal to form the air bridge and the metal to lift-off, respectively. Using this configuration, the deposited metal at the sides of the top part of the air bridge is connected to the surrounding metal to lift-off and disconnect from the air bridge. The electron dose used in this area has to be smaller than the minimum dose that penetrates the total resist layer, so that the deposited metal does not reach the substrate. This method takes maximum advantage of the resist thickness for the fabrication of high structures, as no part of the resist is sacrificed

Item Type:Conference Proceedings
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cumming, Professor David and Papageorgiou, Mr Vasileios and Khalid, Dr Ata-Ul-Habib
Authors: Papageorgiou, V., Khalid, A., and Cumming, D. R.S.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Electronics and Nanoscale Engineering
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2013 The Authors
Publisher Policy:Reproduced with the permission of the authors.

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
497131Novel Thermal Management Concepts: High Power High Frequency Planar Gunn DiodeDavid CummingEngineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)EP/H011862/1ENG - ENGINEERING ELECTRONICS & NANO ENG