Infection and pathogenesis of canine, equine and human influenza viruses in canine tracheas

Gonzalez, G., Marshall, J. F., Morrell, J., Robb, D., McCauley, J. W., Perez, D. R., Parrish, C. R. and Murcia, P. R. (2014) Infection and pathogenesis of canine, equine and human influenza viruses in canine tracheas. Journal of Virology, 88(16), pp. 9208-9219. (doi:10.1128/JVI.00887-14) (PMID:24899186) (PMCID:PMC4136294)

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Abstract

Influenza A viruses (IAVs) can jump species barriers and occasionally cause epidemics, epizootics, pandemics, and panzootics. Characterizing the infection dynamics at the target tissues of natural hosts is central to understanding the mechanisms that control host range, tropism, and virulence. Canine influenza virus (CIV; H3N8) originated after the transfer of an equine influenza virus (EIV) into dogs. Thus, comparing CIV and EIV isolates provides an opportunity to study the determinants of influenza virus emergence. Here we characterize the replication of canine, equine, and human IAVs in the trachea of the dog, a species to which humans are heavily exposed. We define a phenotype of infection for CIV, which is characterized by high levels of virus replication and extensive tissue damage. CIV was compared to evolutionarily distinct EIVs, and the early EIV isolates showed an impaired ability to infect dog tracheas, while EIVs that circulated near the time of CIV emergence exhibited a CIV-like infection phenotype. Inoculating dog tracheas with various human IAVs (hIAVs) showed that they infected the tracheal epithelium with various efficiencies depending on the virus tested. Finally, we show that reassortant viruses carrying gene segments of CIV and hIAV are viable and that addition of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) of CIV to the 2009 human pandemic virus results in a virus that replicates at high levels and causes significant lesions. This provides important insights into the role of evolution on viral emergence and on the role of HA and NA as determinants of pathogenicity.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Gonzalez, Ms Gaelle and Marshall, Dr John and Murcia, Dr Pablo and Morrell, Miss Joanna
Authors: Gonzalez, G., Marshall, J. F., Morrell, J., Robb, D., McCauley, J. W., Perez, D. R., Parrish, C. R., and Murcia, P. R.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Journal of Virology
Publisher:American Society for Microbiology
ISSN:0022-538X
ISSN (Online):1098-5514

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