Association between urinary sodium, creatinine, albumin, and long term survival in chronic kidney disease

McQuarrie, E. P., Traynor, J. P., Taylor, A. H., Freel, E. M., Fox, J. G., Jardine, A. G. and Mark, P. (2014) Association between urinary sodium, creatinine, albumin, and long term survival in chronic kidney disease. Hypertension, 64(1), pp. 111-117. (doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.03093)

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Abstract

Dietary sodium intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk in the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease, sodium intake has been associated with progressive renal disease, but not independently of proteinuria. We studied the relationship between urinary sodium excretion and urinary sodium:creatinine ratio and mortality or requirement for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease. Adults attending a renal clinic who had at least one 24-hour urinary sodium measurement were identified. 24-hour urinary sodium measures were collected and urinary sodium:creatinine ratio calculated. Time to renal replacement therapy or death was recorded. 423 patients were identified with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 48ml/min/1.73m2. 90 patients required renal replacement therapy and 102 patients died. Mean slope decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.8ml/min/1.73m2/year. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Patients who died or required renal replacement therapy had significantly higher urinary sodium excretion and urinary sodium:creatinine but the association with these parameters and poor outcome was not independent of renal function, age and albuminuria. When stratified by albuminuria, urinary sodium:creatinine was a significant cumulative additional risk for mortality, even in patients with low level albuminuria. There was no association between low urinary sodium and risk, as observed in some studies. This study demonstrates an association between urinary sodium excretion and mortality in chronic kidney disease, with a cumulative relationship between sodium excretion, albuminuria and reduced survival. These data support reducing dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease but further study is required to determine the target sodium intake.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Taylor, Dr Alison and Fox, Dr Jonathan and McQuarrie, Dr Emily and Freel, Dr Marie and Mark, Dr Patrick and Traynor, Dr Jamie and Jardine, Professor Alan
Authors: McQuarrie, E. P., Traynor, J. P., Taylor, A. H., Freel, E. M., Fox, J. G., Jardine, A. G., and Mark, P.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Hypertension
Publisher:American Heart Association
ISSN:0194-911X
ISSN (Online):1524-4563
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2014 American Heart Association
First Published:First published in Hypertension 64(1):111-117
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.

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