Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light

Aasi, J. et al. (2013) Enhanced sensitivity of the LIGO gravitational wave detector by using squeezed states of light. Nature Photonics, 7(8), pp. 613-619. (doi:10.1038/NPHOTON.2013.177)

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Abstract

Nearly a century after Einstein first predicted the existence of gravitational waves, a global network of Earth-based gravitational wave observatories1, 2, 3, 4 is seeking to directly detect this faint radiation using precision laser interferometry. Photon shot noise, due to the quantum nature of light, imposes a fundamental limit on the attometre-level sensitivity of the kilometre-scale Michelson interferometers deployed for this task. Here, we inject squeezed states to improve the performance of one of the detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) beyond the quantum noise limit, most notably in the frequency region down to 150 Hz, critically important for several astrophysical sources, with no deterioration of performance observed at any frequency. With the injection of squeezed states, this LIGO detector demonstrated the best broadband sensitivity to gravitational waves ever achieved, with important implications for observing the gravitational-wave Universe with unprecedented sensitivity.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Grant, Mr Alastair and MacDonald, Miss Erin and Beveridge, Miss Nicola and Bell, Dr Angus and Hammond, Professor Giles and Hild, Professor Stefan and Barr, Dr Bryan and Sorazu Lucio, Dr Borja and Reid, Professor Stuart and Lawrie, Mr Craig and Evans, Mr Keith and Gill, Mr Colin and Heng, Professor Ik Siong and van Veggel, Dr Marielle and Newton, Dr Gavin and Torrie, Dr Calum and Graef, Dr Christian and Hendry, Professor Martin and Scott, Dr Jamie and Rowan, Professor Sheila and Kumar, Mr Rahul and Abernathy, Mr Matthew and Martin, Dr Iain and Robertson, Professor Norna and Cumming, Dr Alan and Cunningham, Dr Liam and Woan, Professor Graham and Hough, Professor James and Huttner, Dr Sabina and Campsie, Mr Paul and Bassiri, Mr Riccardo and Strain, Professor Kenneth and Jones, Mr Russell and Haughian, Dr Karen and Pitkin, Dr Matthew and Murray, Dr Peter
Authors: Aasi, J., Abadie, J., Abbott, B. P., Abbott, R., Abbott, T. D., Abernathy, M., Adams, C., Adams, T., Addesso, P., Adhikari, R. X., Affeldt, C., Aguiar, O. D., Ajith, P., Allen, B., Amador Ceron, E., Amariutei, D., Anderson, S. B., Anderson, W. G., Arai, K., Araya, M. C., Arceneaux, C., Ast, S., Aston, S. M., Atkinson, D., Aufmuth, P., Aulbert, C., Austin, L., Aylott, B. E., Babak, S., Baker, P. T., Ballmer, S., Bao, Y., Barayoga, J. C., Barker, D., Barr, B., Barsotti, L., Barton, M. A., Bartos, I., Bassiri, R., Batch, J., Bauchrowitz, J., Behnke, B., Bell, A.S., Bell, C., Bergmann, G., Berliner, J. M., Bertolini, A., Betzwieser, J., Beveridge, N., Beyersdorf, P. T., Bhadbhade, T., Bilenko, I. A., Billingsley, G., Birch, J., Biscans, S., Black, E., Blackburn, J. K., Blackburn, L., Blair, D., Bland, B., Bock, O., Bodiya, T. P., Bogan, C., Bond, C., Bork, R., Born, M., Bose, S., Bowers, J., Brady, P. R., Braginsky, V. B., Brau, J. E., Breyer, J., Bridges, D. O., Brinkmann, M., Britzger, M., Brooks, A. F., Brown, D. A., Brown, D. D., Buckland, K., Brückner, F., Buchler, B. C., Buonanno, A., Burguet-Castell, J., Byer, R. L., Cadonati, L., Camp, J. B., Campsie, P., Cannon, K., Cao, J., Capano, C. D., Carbone, L., Caride, S., Castiglia, A. D., Caudill, S., Cavaglià, M., Cepeda, C., Chalermsongsak, T., Chao, S., Charlton, P., Chen, X., Chen, Y., Cho, H.-S., Chow, J. H., Christensen, N., Chu, Q., Chua, S. S. Y., Chung, C. T. Y., Ciani, G., Clara, F., Clark, D. E., Clark, J. A., Constancio Junior, M., Cook, D., Corbitt, T. R., Cordier, M., Cornish, N., Corsi, A., Costa, C. A., Coughlin, M. W., Countryman, S., Couvares, P., Coward, D. M., Cowart, M., Coyne, D. C., Craig, K., Creighton, J. D. E., Creighton, T. D., Cumming, A., Cunningham, L., Dahl, K., Damjanic, M., Danilishin, S. L., Danzmann, K., Daudert, B., Daveloza, H., Davies, G. S., Daw, E. J., Dayanga, T., Deleeuw, E., Denker, T., Dent, T., Dergachev, V., DeRosa, R., DeSalvo, R., Dhurandhar, S., Di Palma, I., Díaz, M., Dietz, A., Donovan, F., Dooley, K. L., Doravari, S., Drasco, S., Drever, R. W. P., Driggers, J. C., Du, Z., Dumas, J.-C., Dwyer, S., Eberle, T., Edwards, M., Effler, A., Ehrens, P., Eikenberry, S. S., Engel, R., Essick, R., Etzel, T., Evans, K., Evans, M., Evans, T., Factourovich, M., Fairhurst, S., Fang, Q., Farr, B. F., Farr, W., Favata, M., Fazi, D., Fehrmann, H., Feldbaum, D., Finn, L. S., Fisher, R. P., Foley, S., Forsi, E., Fotopoulos, N., Frede, M., Frei, M. A., Frei, Z., Freise, A., Frey, R., Fricke, T. T., Friedrich, D., Fritschel, P., Frolov, V. V., Fujimoto, M.-K., Fulda, P. J., Fyffe, M., Gair, J., Garcia, J., Gehrels, N., Gelencser, G., Gergely, L. Á., Ghosh, S., Giaime, J. A., Giampanis, S., Giardina, K. D., Gil-Casanova, S., Gill, C., Gleason, J., Goetz, E., González, G., Gordon, N., Gorodetsky, M. L., Gossan, S., Goßler, S., Graef, C., Graff, P. B., Grant, A., Gras, S., Gray, C., Greenhalgh, R. J. S., Gretarsson, A. M., Griffo, C., Grote, H., Grover, K., Grunewald, S., Guido, C., Gustafson, E. K., Gustafson, R., Hammer, D., Hammond, G., Hanks, J., Hanna, C., Hanson, J., Haris, K., Harms, J., Harry, G. M., Harry, I. W., Harstad, E. D., Hartman, M. T., Haughian, K., Hayama, K., Heefner, J., Heintze, M. C., Hendry, M.A., Heng, I.S., Heptonstall, A. W., Heurs, M., Hewitson, M., Hild, S., Hoak, D., Hodge, K. A., Holt, K., Holtrop, M., Hong, T., Hooper, S., Hough, J., Howell, E. J., Huang, V., Huerta, E. A., Hughey, B., Huttner, S.H., Huynh, M., Huynh-Dinh, T., Ingram, D. R., Inta, R., Isogai, T., Ivanov, A., Iyer, B. R., Izumi, K., Jacobson, M., James, E., Jang, H., Jang, Y. J., Jesse, E., Johnson, W. W., Jones, D., Jones, D. I., Jones, R., Ju, L., Kalmus, P., Kalogera, V., Kandhasamy, S., Kang, G., Kanner, J. B., Kasturi, R., Katsavounidis, E., Katzman, W., Kaufer, H., Kawabe, K., Kawamura, S., Kawazoe, F., Keitel, D., Kelley, D. B., Kells, W., Keppel, D. G., Khalaidovski, A., Khalili, F. Y., Khazanov, E. A., Kim, B. K., Kim, C., Kim, K., Kim, N., Kim, Y.-M., King, P. J., Kinzel, D. L., Kissel, J. S., Klimenko, S., Kline, J., Kokeyama, K., Kondrashov, V., Koranda, S., Korth, W. Z., Kozak, D., Kozameh, C., Kremin, A., Kringel, V., Krishnan, B., Kucharczyk, C., Kuehn, G., Kumar, P., Kumar, R., Kuper, B. J., Kurdyumov, R., Kwee, P., Lam, P. K., Landry, M., Lantz, B., Lasky, P. D., Lawrie, C., Lazzarini, A., Le Roux, A., Leaci, P., Lee, C.-H., Lee, H. K., Lee, H. M., Lee, J., Leong, J. R., Levine, B., Lhuillier, V., Lin, A. C., Litvine, V., Liu, Y., Liu, Z., Lockerbie, N. A., Lodhia, D., Loew, K., Logue, J., Lombardi, A. L., Lormand, M., Lough, J., Lubinski, M., Lück, H., Lundgren, A. P., Macarthur, J., MacDonald, E., Machenschalk, B., MacInnis, M., Macleod, D. M., Magaña-Sandoval, F., Mageswaran, M., Mailand, K., Manca, G., Mandel, I., Mandic, V., Márka, S., Márka, Z., Markosyan, A. S., Maros, E., Martin, I.W., Martin, R. M., Martinov, D., Marx, J. N., Mason, K., Matichard, F., Matone, L., Matzner, R. A., Mavalvala, N., May, G., Mazzolo, G., McAuley, K., McCarthy, R., McClelland, D. E., McGuire, S. C., McIntyre, G., McIver, J., Meadors, G. D., Mehmet, M., Meier, T., Melatos, A., Mendell, G., Mercer, R. A., Meshkov, S., Messenger, C., Meyer, M. S., Miao, H., Miller, J., Mingarelli, C. M. F., Mitra, S., Mitrofanov, V. P., Mitselmakher, G., Mittleman, R., Moe, B., Mokler, F., Mohapatra, S. R. P., Moraru, D., Moreno, G., Mori, T., Morriss, S. R., Mossavi, K., Mow-Lowry, C. M., Mueller, C. L., Mueller, G., Mukherjee, S., Mullavey, A., Munch, J., Murphy, D., Murray, P.G., Mytidis, A., Nanda Kumar, D., Nash, T., Nayak, R., Necula, V., Newton, G., Nguyen, T., Nishida, E., Nishizawa, A., Nitz, A., Nolting, D., Normandin, M. E., Nuttall, L. K., O'Dell, J., O'Reilly, B., O'Shaughnessy, R., Ochsner, E., Oelker, E., Ogin, G. H., Oh, J. J., Oh, S. H., Ohme, F., Oppermann, P., Osthelder, C., Ott, C. D., Ottaway, D. J., Ottens, R. S., Ou, J., Overmier, H., Owen, B. J., Padilla, C., Pai, A., Pan, Y., Pankow, C., Papa, M. A., Paris, H., Parkinson, W., Pedraza, M., Penn, S., Peralta, C., Perreca, A., Phelps, M., Pickenpack, M., Pierro, V., Pinto, I. M., Pitkin, M., Pletsch, H. J., Pöld, J., Postiglione, F., Poux, C., Predoi, V., Prestegard, T., Price, L. R., Prijatelj, M., Privitera, S., Prokhorov, L. G., Puncken, O., Quetschke, V., Quintero, E., Quitzow-James, R., Raab, F. J., Radkins, H., Raffai, P., Raja, S., Rakhmanov, M., Ramet, C., Raymond, V., Reed, C. M., Reed, T., Reid, S., Reitze, D. H., Riesen, R., Riles, K., Roberts, M., Robertson, N.A., Robinson, E. L., Roddy, S., Rodriguez, C., Rodriguez, L., Rodruck, M., Rollins, J. G., Romie, J. H., Röver, C., Rowan, S., Rüdiger, A., Ryan, K., Salemi, F., Sammut, L., Sandberg, V., Sanders, J., Sankar, S., Sannibale, V., Santamaría, L., Santiago-Prieto, I., Santostasi, G., Sathyaprakash, B. S., Saulson, P. R., Savage, R. L., Schilling, R., Schnabel, R., Schofield, R. M. S., Schuette, D., Schulz, B., Schutz, B. F., Schwinberg, P., Scott, J., Scott, S. M., Seifert, F., Sellers, D., Sengupta, A. S., Sergeev, A., Shaddock, D. A., Shahriar, M. S., Shaltev, M., Shao, Z., Shapiro, B., Shawhan, P., Shoemaker, D. H., Sidery, T. L., Siemens, X., Sigg, D., Simakov, D., Singer, A., Singer, L., Sintes, A. M., Skelton, G. R., Slagmolen, B. J. J., Slutsky, J., Smith, J. R., Smith, M. R., Smith, R. J. E., Smith-Lefebvre, N. D., Son, E. J., Sorazu, B., Souradeep, T., Stefszky, M., Steinert, E., Steinlechner, J., Steinlechner, S., Steplewski, S., Stevens, D., Stochino, A., Stone, R., Strain, K.A., Strigin, S. E., Stroeer, A. S., Stuver, A. L., Summerscales, T. Z., Susmithan, S., Sutton, P. J., Szeifert, G., Talukder, D., Tanner, D. B., Tarabrin, S. P., Taylor, R., Thomas, M., Thomas, P., Thorne, K. A., Thorne, K. S., Thrane, E., Tiwari, V., Tokmakov, K. V., Tomlinson, C., Torres, C. V., Torrie, C.I., Traylor, G., Tse, M., Ugolini, D., Unnikrishnan, C. S., Vahlbruch, H., Vallisneri, M., van der Sluys, M. V., van Veggel, A.A., Vass, S., Vaulin, R., Vecchio, A., Veitch, P. J., Veitch, J., Venkateswara, K., Verma, S., Vincent-Finley, R., Vitale, S., Vo, T., Vorvick, C., Vousden, W. D., Vyatchanin, S. P., Wade, A., Wade, L., Wade, M., Waldman, S. J., Wallace, L., Wan, Y., Wang, M., Wang, J., Wang, X., Wanner, A., Ward, R. L., Was, M., Weinert, M., Weinstein, A. J., Weiss, R., Welborn, T., Wen, L., Wessels, P., West, M., Westphal, T., Wette, K., Whelan, J. T., Whitcomb, S. E., Wiseman, A. G., White, D. J., Whiting, B. F., Wiesner, K., Wilkinson, C., Willems, P. A., Williams, L., Williams, R., Williams, T., Willis, J. L., Willke, B., Wimmer, M., Winkelmann, L., Winkler, W., C. Wipf, C., Wittel, H., Woan, G., Wooley, R., Worden, J., Yablon, J., Yakushin, I., Yamamoto, H., Yancey, C. C., Yang, H., Yeaton-Massey, D., Yoshida, S., Yum, H., Zanolin, M., Zhang, F., Zhang, L., Zhao, C., Zhu, H., Zhu, X. J., Zotov, N., Zucker, M. E., and Zweizig, J.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Electronics and Nanoscale Engineering
College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Journal Name:Nature Photonics
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:1749-4885
ISSN (Online):1749-4893

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
459311Investigations in Gravitational Radiation.Sheila RowanScience & Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)PP/F001118/1P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY
459313Investigations in Gravitational Radiation.Sheila RowanScience & Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)ST/J000361/1P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY