Reactive oxygen species, vascular noxs, and hypertension: focus on translational and clinical research

Montezano, A. C. and Touyz, R. M. (2014) Reactive oxygen species, vascular noxs, and hypertension: focus on translational and clinical research. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, 20(1), pp. 164-182. (doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5302)

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Abstract

Significance: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that are important in physiological processes, including host defense, aging, and cellular homeostasis. Increased ROS bioavailability and altered redox signaling (oxidative stress) have been implicated in the onset and/or progression of chronic diseases, including hypertension. Recent Advances: Although oxidative stress may not be the only cause of hypertension, it amplifies blood pressure elevation in the presence of other pro-hypertensive factors, such as salt loading, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and sympathetic hyperactivity, at least in experimental models. A major source for ROS in the cardiovascular-renal system is a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxs), including the prototypic Nox2-based Nox, and Nox family members: Nox1, Nox4, and Nox5. Critical Issues: Although extensive experimental data support a role for increased ROS levels and altered redox signaling in the pathogenesis of hypertension, the role in clinical hypertension is unclear, as a direct causative role of ROS in blood pressure elevation has yet to be demonstrated in humans. Nevertheless, what is becoming increasingly evident is that abnormal ROS regulation and aberrant signaling through redox-sensitive pathways are important in the pathophysiological processes which is associated with vascular injury and target-organ damage in hypertension. Future Directions: There is a paucity of clinical information related to the mechanisms of oxidative stress and blood pressure elevation, and a few assays accurately measure ROS directly in patients. Such further ROS research is needed in humans and in the development of adequately validated analytical methods to accurately assess oxidative stress in the clinic.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:This is a copy of an article published in the Antioxidants and Redox Signaling © 2013 copyright Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.; Antioxidants and Redox Signaling is available online at: http://online.liebertpub.com.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Montezano, Dr Augusto and Touyz, Professor Rhian
Authors: Montezano, A. C., and Touyz, R. M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Antioxidants and Redox Signaling
Publisher:Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Publishers
ISSN:1523-0864
ISSN (Online):1557-7716
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
First Published:First published in Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 20(1):164-182
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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