Temporal variations of x-ray solar flare loops: length, corpulence, position, temperature, plasma pressure, and spectra

Jeffrey, N.L.S. and Kontar, E.P. (2013) Temporal variations of x-ray solar flare loops: length, corpulence, position, temperature, plasma pressure, and spectra. Astrophysical Journal, 766(2), Art. 75. (doi:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/75)

Jeffrey, N.L.S. and Kontar, E.P. (2013) Temporal variations of x-ray solar flare loops: length, corpulence, position, temperature, plasma pressure, and spectra. Astrophysical Journal, 766(2), Art. 75. (doi:10.1088/0004-637X/766/2/75)

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Abstract

The spatial and spectral properties of three solar flare coronal X-ray loops are studied before, during, and after the peak X-ray emission. Using observations from the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI), we deduce the temporal changes in emitting X-ray length, corpulence, volume, position, number density, and thermal pressure. We observe a decrease in the loop length, width, and volume before the X-ray peak, and an increasing number density and thermal pressure. After the X-ray peak, volume increases and loop corpulence grows due to increasing width. The volume variations are more pronounced than the position variations, often known as magnetic field line contraction. We believe this is the first dedicated study examining the temporal evolution of X-ray loop lengths and widths. Collectively, the observations also show for the first time three temporal phases given by peaks in temperature, X-ray emission, and thermal pressure, with the minimum volume coinciding with the X-ray peak. Although the volume of the flaring plasma decreases before the peak in X-ray emission, the relationship between temperature and volume does not support simple compressive heating in a collapsing magnetic trap model. Within a low β plasma, shrinking loop widths perpendicular to the guiding field can be explained by squeezing the magnetic field threading the region. Plasma heating leads to chromospheric evaporation and growing number density. This produces increasing thermal pressure and decreasing loop lengths as electrons interact at shorter distances and we believe after the X-ray peak, the increasing loop corpulence.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Kontar, Dr Eduard and Jeffrey, Dr Natasha
Authors: Jeffrey, N.L.S., and Kontar, E.P.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Physics and Astronomy
Journal Name:Astrophysical Journal
ISSN:0004-637X
ISSN (Online):1538-4357
Published Online:11 March 2013
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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
542081Rolling Programme in Solar and Plasma AstrophysicsLyndsay FletcherScience & Technologies Facilities Council (STFC)ST/I001808/1P&A - PHYSICS & ASTRONOMY