Comparison of oil extraction methods, energy analysis and biodiesel production from flax seeds

Ali, M. and Watson, I. A. (2013) Comparison of oil extraction methods, energy analysis and biodiesel production from flax seeds. International Journal of Energy Research, (doi: 10.1002/er.3066)

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In recent years, the commercial potential of oil extraction and biodiesel production derived from vegetable seed is being realized. The process energy input requirements are important factors in oil extraction and biodiesel production. This research work investigated oil extraction from flax seeds and compared extraction yield with the energy load. The effect of moisture content on the oil yield was compared between a mechanical oil expeller, organic solvent extraction, organic solvent and microwave assisted, organic solvent and ultrasonic assisted, and combined microwave and ultrasonic with organic solvent. The maximum oil yields % wt/wt from these techniques was 22.6%, 36.3%, 10.0%, 42.0% and 27.8%, respectively. The moisture content had a significant effect on oil yield with the mechanical oil expeller, organic solvent method and ultrasonic assisted extraction, whereas no or little effect was found on microwave-assisted extraction. The microwave-assisted extraction showed better results compared with the ultrasonic-assisted and combined treatment methods. The relative energy consumption of these processes was experimentally investigated; energy ratios were calculated based on the amount of energy recovered to the amount of energy supplied to the flax seed for oil extraction. The net energy ratios showed that microwave-assisted extraction had the highest (25.21%), followed by organic solvent method (14.04%), ultrasonic method (6.33%) and lowest was with combined ultrasonic and microwave assisted treatment (5.73%). These results showed that flax seed oil can be extracted using microwave-assisted methods efficiently and in an energy feasible manner. In situ ultrasonic transesterification was applied to powdered samples with 4%, 8% and 12% moisture content (on % dry basis) within an ultrasonic bath having an intensity of 0.124 W/cm2. The flax seed biodiesel produced showed a highest conversion yield of 93%, and the effect of different moisture content on the yield showed that 4% moisture content sample produced the greatest biodiesel yield.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Watson, Dr Ian
Authors: Ali, M., and Watson, I. A.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Systems Power and Energy
Journal Name:International Journal of Energy Research
Publisher:John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
ISSN (Online):1099-114X

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