Reciprocal regulation of PKA and rac signaling

Bachmann, V.A., Riml, A., Huber, R.G., Baillie, G.S. , Liedl, K.R., Valovka, T. and Stefan, E. (2013) Reciprocal regulation of PKA and rac signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(21), pp. 8531-8536. (doi: 10.1073/pnas.1215902110)

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Activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases relay extracellular signals through spatial and temporal controlled kinase and GTPase entities. These enzymes are coordinated by multifunctional scaffolding proteins for precise intracellular signal processing. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is the prime example for compartmentalized signal transmission downstream of distinct GPCRs. A-kinase anchoring proteins tether PKA to specific intracellular sites to ensure precision and directionality of PKA phosphorylation events. Here, we show that the Rho-GTPase Rac contains A-kinase anchoring protein properties and forms a dynamic cellular protein complex with PKA. The formation of this transient core complex depends on binary interactions with PKA subunits, cAMP levels and cellular GTP-loading accounting for bidirectional consequences on PKA and Rac downstream signaling. We show that GTP-Rac stabilizes the inactive PKA holoenzyme. However, β-adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of GTP-Rac–bound PKA routes signals to the Raf-Mek-Erk cascade, which is critically implicated in cell proliferation. We describe a further mechanism of how cAMP enhances nuclear Erk1/2 signaling: It emanates from transphosphorylation of p21-activated kinases in their evolutionary conserved kinase-activation loop through GTP-Rac compartmentalized PKA activities. Sole transphosphorylation of p21-activated kinases is not sufficient to activate Erk1/2. It requires complex formation of both kinases with GTP-Rac1 to unleash cAMP-PKA–boosted activation of Raf-Mek-Erk. Consequently GTP-Rac functions as a dual kinase-tuning scaffold that favors the PKA holoenzyme and contributes to potentiate Erk1/2 signaling. Our findings offer additional mechanistic insights how β-adrenergic receptor-controlled PKA activities enhance GTP-Rac–mediated activation of nuclear Erk1/2 signaling.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Baillie, Professor George
Authors: Bachmann, V.A., Riml, A., Huber, R.G., Baillie, G.S., Liedl, K.R., Valovka, T., and Stefan, E.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Publisher:National Academy of Sciences
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2013 National Academy of Sciences
First Published:First published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110(21):8531-8536
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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