Eight-phase alkali feldspars: low-temperature cryptoperthite, peristerite and multiple replacement reactions in the Klokken intrusion

Parsons, I., Fitz Gerald, J.D., Heizler, M.T., Heizler, L.L., Ivanic, T. and Lee, M.R. (2013) Eight-phase alkali feldspars: low-temperature cryptoperthite, peristerite and multiple replacement reactions in the Klokken intrusion. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 165(5), pp. 931-960. (doi:10.1007/s00410-012-0842-5)

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Abstract

Eight feldspar phases have been distinguished within individual alkali feldspar primocrysts in laminated syenite members of the layered syenite series of the Klokken intrusion. The processes leading to the formation of the first four phases have been described previously. The feldspars crystallized as homogeneous sodian sanidine and exsolved by spinodal decomposition, between 750 and 600 °C, depending on bulk composition, to give fully coherent, strain-controlled braid cryptoperthites with sub-μm periodicities. Below ~500 °C, in the microcline field, these underwent a process of partial mutual replacement in a deuteric fluid, producing coarse (up to mm scale), turbid, incoherent patch perthites. We here describe exsolution and replacement processes that occurred after patch perthite formation. Both Or- and Ab-rich patches underwent a new phase of coherent exsolution by volume diffusion. Or-rich patches began to exsolve albite lamellae by coherent nucleation in the range 460–340 °C, depending on patch composition, leading to film perthite with ≤1 μm periodicities. Below ~300 °C, misfit dislocation loops formed, which were subsequently enlarged to nanotunnels. Ab-rich patches (bulk composition ~Ab91Or1An8), in one sample, exsolved giving peristerite, with one strong modulation with a periodicity of ~17 nm and a pervasive tweed microtexture. The Ab-rich patches formed with metastable disorder below the peristerite solvus and intersected the peristerite conditional spinodal at ~450 °C. This is the first time peristerite has been imaged using TEM within any perthite, and the first time peristerite has been found in a relatively rapidly cooled geological environment. The lamellar periodicities of film perthite and peristerite are consistent with experimentally determined diffusion coefficients and a calculated cooling history of the intrusion. All the preceding textures were in places affected by a phase of replacement correlating with regions of extreme optical turbidity. We term this material ultra porous late feldspar (UPLF). It is composed predominantly of regions of microporous very Or-rich feldspar (mean Ab2.5Or97.4An0.1) associated with very pure porous albite (Ab97.0Or1.6An1.4) implying replacement below 170–90 °C, depending on degree of order. In TEM, UPLF has complex, irregular diffraction contrast similar to that previously associated with low-temperature albitization and diagenetic overgrowths. Replacement by UPLF seems to have been piecemeal in character. Ghost-like textural pseudomorphs of both braid and film parents occur. Formation of patch perthite, film perthite and peristerite occurred 104–105 year after emplacement, but there are no microtextural constraints on the age of UPLF formation.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Feldspar, TEM, syenite
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lee, Professor Martin
Authors: Parsons, I., Fitz Gerald, J.D., Heizler, M.T., Heizler, L.L., Ivanic, T., and Lee, M.R.
Subjects:Q Science > QE Geology
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Geographical and Earth Sciences > Earth Sciences
Research Group:Earth Systems
Journal Name:Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
Journal Abbr.:Contrib Mineral Petr
ISSN:0010-7999
ISSN (Online):1432-0967
Published Online:01 January 2013

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
323951Anomalous fading of luminescence in fieldspar minerals: mechanisms and solutionsMartin LeeEngineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)GR/R93247/01SCHOOL OF GEOGRAPHICAL & EARTH SCIENCES