Magnesium transport in hypertension

Sontia, B. and Touyz, R.M. (2007) Magnesium transport in hypertension. Pathophysiology, 14(3-4), pp. 205-211. (doi: 10.1016/j.pathophys.2007.09.005)

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Abstract

Epidemiological, clinical and experimental evidence indicates an inverse association between Mg<sup>2+</sup> levels (serum and tissue) and blood pressure. Magnesium may influence blood pressure by modulating vascular tone and structure through its effects on numerous biochemical reactions that control vascular contraction/dilation, growth/apoptosis, differentiation and inflammation. Magnesium acts as a calcium channel antagonist, it stimulates production of vasodilator prostacyclins and nitric oxide and it alters vascular responses to vasoactive agonists. Mammalian cells regulate Mg<sup>2+</sup> concentration through specialized influx and efflux transport systems that have only recently been characterized. Magnesium efflux occurs via Na<sup>2+</sup>-dependent and Na<sup>2+</sup>-independent pathways. Mg<sup>2+</sup> influx is controlled by recently cloned transporters including Mrs2p, SLC41A1, SLC41A1, ACDP2, MagT1, TRPM6 and TRPM7. Alterations in some of these systems may contribute to hypomagnesemia and intracellular Mg<sup>2+</sup> deficiency in hypertension. In particular increased Mg<sup>2+</sup> efflux through altered regulation of the vascular Na<sup>2+</sup>/Mg<sup>2+</sup> exchanger and decreased Mg<sup>2+</sup> influx due to defective vascular and renal TRPM6/7 expression/activity may be important. This review discusses the role of Mg<sup>2+</sup> in vascular biology and implications in hypertension and focuses on the putative transport systems that control vascular magnesium homeostasis. Much research is still needed to clarify the exact mechanisms of Mg<sup>2+</sup> regulation in the cardiovascular system and the implications of aberrant transcellular Mg<sup>2+</sup> transport in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Touyz, Professor Rhian
Authors: Sontia, B., and Touyz, R.M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Pathophysiology
ISSN:0928-4680
ISSN (Online):1873-149X

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