Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in vascular biology-molecular mechanisms and clinical implications

Touyz, R.M. and Schiffrin, E.L. (2006) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in vascular biology-molecular mechanisms and clinical implications. Vascular Pharmacology, 45(1), pp. 19-28. (doi: 10.1016/j.vph.2005.11.014)

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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)α, γ and β/δ belong to the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors. PPARs heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and then act as transcription factors to modulate the function of many target genes. PPARα, γ and β/δ subtypes have significant differences in their ligand and gene specificities. PPARα is activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids and by fibrate drugs (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil) and controls expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. PPARγ is activated by fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODEs), prostaglandin derivatives, such as 15-deoxy-Δ<sup>12</sup>,<sup>14</sup>-prostaglandin J<sub>2</sub>, and thiazolidinedione (glitazone) drugs, such as pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. PPARγ is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis. PPARβ/δ ligands include polyunsaturated fatty acids, prostaglandins and synthetic compounds and stimulate fatty acid oxidation. All PPARs are expressed in vascular cells where they exert antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory and vasculoprotective actions. Activators of PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolidinediones or glitazones) antagonize angiotensin II effects in vivo and in vitro and have cardiovascular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. PPAR agonists slightly reduce blood pressure are cardio-protective and correct vascular structure and endothelial dysfunction in experimental models of hypertension. Because of these beneficial effects, activators of PPARs may have therapeutic potential in the prevention of cardiovascular disease beyond their actions on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The present chapter focuses on the role of PPARs in vascular biology and discusses the clinical implications of using PPAR agonists in the management of vascular disease.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Touyz, Professor Rhian
Authors: Touyz, R.M., and Schiffrin, E.L.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Vascular Pharmacology
ISSN (Online):1879-3649

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