Role of endothelin-1 in hypertension

Schiffrin, E. L. and Touyz, R.M. (1999) Role of endothelin-1 in hypertension. Hypertension, 34(4), pp. 876-881. (doi: 10.1161/01.HYP.34.4.876)

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Abstract

Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is overexpressed in the vascular wall in certain models of experimental hypertension: deoxycorticosterone acetate salt–treated rats, deoxycorticosterone acetate salt–treated spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), stroke-prone SHR, Dahl salt–sensitive rats, angiotensin II–infused rats, and 1-kidney 1 clip Goldblatt rats; it is not overexpressed in SHR, 2-kidney 1-clip hypertensive rats, or L-NAME–treated rats. In hypertensive rats without generalized vascular overexpression, however, expression of ET-1 was often enhanced in intramyocardial coronary arteries, suggesting a role of endothelin in myocardial ischemia in hypertension. In rats overexpressing ET-1, ETA/B and ETA-selective receptor antagonists lowered blood pressure and reduced vascular growth, particularly in small arteries, beyond what could be attributed to blood pressure lowering, suggesting a direct effect of ET-1 on growth. Hypertensive rats treated with endothelin antagonists are protected from stroke and renal injury. The ETA/B antagonist bosentan induced blood-pressure reductions in mildly hypertensive patients similar to those achieved with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Moderately to severely hypertensive patients presented with enhanced expression of prepro-ET-1 mRNA in the endothelium of subcutaneous resistance arteries, suggesting that these stages of hypertension may respond particularly well to endothelin antagonism. Hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease have increased arterial expression of ET-1, and increased plasma levels of immunoreactive endothelin have been described in black patients. ET-1 plays an important role in atherosclerosis, for which hypertension is an important risk factor. Thus, ET-1 may be involved in experimental and human hypertension. Endothelin antagonists may prove effective as disease-modifying agents if they are shown clinically, as they are experimentally, to offer target organ protection and reduce long-term complications of hypertension. This remains to be demonstrated in humans.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Touyz, Professor Rhian
Authors: Schiffrin, E. L., and Touyz, R.M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Hypertension
ISSN:0194-911X

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