Clinical significance of endothelin in cardiovascular disease

Schiffrin, E.L., Intengan, H.D., Thibault, G. and Touyz, R.M. (1997) Clinical significance of endothelin in cardiovascular disease. Current Opinion in Cardiology, 12, pp. 354-367.

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Endothelins are ubiquitously produced 21-amino-acid peptides that were discovered as an endothelial product and may play important roles in cardiovescular physiology and pathophysiology. The main endothelin produced by the endothelium is endothelin-1. The vasoconstrictor role of endothelins may participate in blood pressure elevation and vascular hypertrophy in salt-dependent models of hypertension (deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with deoxycorticosterone, acetate and salt, and Dehl salt-sensitive rats), and in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. In humans, endothelins may play important roles in moderate to severe essential hypertension, and in the hypertension of African-Americans. Endothelins may be involved in cardiac hypertrophy, and there is increasing evidence of their participation in heart failure, in which acute endothelin antagonism in humans exerts beneficial effects. Endothelin expression is enhanced in smooth muscle cells migrating into the intima of arteries in atherosclerosis, suggesting a role in atherogenesis. Endothelin may participate as a vasoconstrictor in coronary artery disease, and as a contributor to intimal proliferation in restenosis after coronary angioplasty. In patients with myocardial infarction, cardiac production of endothelin is increased, particularly in those with cardiogenic shock. There is a potential for participation of endothelins in vasospasm accompanying stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage: in the latter, endothelin antagonism has shown beneficial effects in experimental models. In neonatal and in primary pulmonary hypertension, endothelin expression is enhanced, and in experimental models endothelin antagonism resulted in favorable responses. Systemic sclerosis is another, peripheral, form of vascular disease in which endothelin may play a role and in which endothelin antagonism may be an interesting therapeutic alternative. The pathophysiologic role of endothelins is becoming increasingly apparent in cardiovascular disease, generating interesting potential therapeutic targets for the use of endothelin antagonists or endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Touyz, Professor Rhian
Authors: Schiffrin, E.L., Intengan, H.D., Thibault, G., and Touyz, R.M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Current Opinion in Cardiology
ISSN (Online):1531-7080

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