Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a 13C-tracer study

Czank, C., Cassidy, A., Zhang, Q., Morrison, D.J. , Preston, T. , Kroon, P.A., Botting, N.P. and Kay, C.D. (2013) Human metabolism and elimination of the anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-glucoside: a 13C-tracer study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 97(5), pp. 995-1003. (doi:10.3945/ajcn.112.049247)

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Abstract

<p>Background: Evidence suggests that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich foods beneficially affects cardiovascular health; however, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination (ADME) of anthocyanin-rich foods are relatively unknown.</p> <p>Objective: We investigated the ADME of a 13C5-labeled anthocyanin in humans.</p> <p>Design: Eight male participants consumed 500 mg isotopically labeled cyanidin-3-glucoside (6,8,10,3′,5′-13C5-C3G). Biological samples were collected over 48 h, and 13C and 13C-labeled metabolite concentrations were measured by using isotope-ratio mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry.</p> <p>Results: The mean ± SE percentage of 13C recovered in urine, breath, and feces was 43.9 ± 25.9% (range: 15.1–99.3% across participants). The relative bioavailability was 12.38 ± 1.38% (5.37 ± 0.67% excreted in urine and 6.91 ± 1.59% in breath). Maximum rates of 13C elimination were achieved 30 min after ingestion (32.53 ± 14.24 μg13C/h), whereas 13C-labeled metabolites peaked (maximum serum concentration: 5.97 ± 2.14 μmol/L) at 10.25 ± 4.14 h. The half-life for 13C-labeled metabolites ranged between 12.44 ± 4.22 and 51.62 ± 22.55 h. 13C elimination was greatest between 0 and 1 h for urine (90.30 ± 15.28 μg/h), at 6 h for breath (132.87 ± 32.23 μg/h), and between 6 and 24 h for feces (557.28 ± 247.88 μg/h), whereas the highest concentrations of 13C-labeled metabolites were identified in urine (10.77 ± 4.52 μmol/L) and fecal samples (43.16 ± 18.00 μmol/L) collected between 6 and 24 h. Metabolites were identified as degradation products, phenolic, hippuric, phenylacetic, and phenylpropenoic acids.</p> <p>Conclusion: Anthocyanins are more bioavailable than previously perceived, and their metabolites are present in the circulation for ≤48 h after ingestion.</p>

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Preston, Professor Thomas and Morrison, Dr Douglas
Authors: Czank, C., Cassidy, A., Zhang, Q., Morrison, D.J., Preston, T., Kroon, P.A., Botting, N.P., and Kay, C.D.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre
Journal Name:American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
ISSN:0002-9165
ISSN (Online):1938-3207
Published Online:11 January 2013

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