Tools to study the degradation and loss of the N-phenyl carbamate chlorpropham — a comprehensive review

Smith, M.J. and Bucher, G. (2012) Tools to study the degradation and loss of the N-phenyl carbamate chlorpropham — a comprehensive review. Environment International, 49, pp. 38-50. (doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2012.08.005)

Full text not currently available from Enlighten.


Chlorpropham (CIPC) was introduced in 1951 and is a primary N-phenyl carbamate belonging to a group of pesticides known as carbamates which are estimated to account for 11% of the total insecticide sales worldwide. They were considered less toxic than organochlorines due to their easier breakdown but, subsequent concerns regarding the environmental impact and their breakdown products have shown them to be environmental toxins and toxic and/or carcinogenic for humans. CIPC is used in growing crops to control weeds and also as a sprout suppressant on crops during long-term storage and while its degradation has been studied and rates quoted these vary greatly. Here published rates of degradation by hydrolysis, biolysis, photolysis and thermal processes are reviewed as well as data on partitioning in air, water and soil. In addition the details of the experimental procedures are reviewed and compared showing how the half-lives and partitioning coefficients have been calculated leading to an understanding of how such vastly different values are achieved. The legislation regarding the use of CIPC and its maximum residue level is also discussed particularly in reference to recent European Commission (EC) legislation. In view of the fact that analytical data on the breakdown of CIPC play an important role in decision-making by regulatory agencies, the authors feel that it is time for an up-to-date review of the data available, including very recent developments in methodology.

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Bucher, Dr Goetz and Smith, Dr Margaret
Authors: Smith, M.J., and Bucher, G.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Chemistry
College of Arts > School of Culture and Creative Arts > History of Art
Journal Name:Environment International

University Staff: Request a correction | Enlighten Editors: Update this record