Oxidative stress, Noxs, and hypertension: experimental evidence and clinical controversies

Montezano, A.C. and Touyz, R.M. (2012) Oxidative stress, Noxs, and hypertension: experimental evidence and clinical controversies. Annals of Medicine, 44(S1), S2-S16. (doi:10.3109/07853890.2011.653393)

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Abstract

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling molecules that influence many physiological processes. Increased ROS bioavailability and altered redox signaling (oxidative stress) have been implicated in chronic diseases including hypertension. Although oxidative stress may not be the sole cause of hypertension, it amplifies blood pressure elevation in the presence of other prohypertensive factors (salt, renin-angiotensin system, sympathetic hyperactivity). A major source for cardiovascular ROS is a family of non-phagocytic NADPH oxidases (Nox1, Nox2, Nox4, Nox5). Other sources of ROS involve mitochondrial electron transport enzymes, xanthine oxidase, and uncoupled nitric oxide synthase. Although evidence from experimental and animal studies supports a role for oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of hypertension, there is still no convincing proof that oxidative stress is a cause of human hypertension. However, what is clear is that oxidative stress is important in the molecular mechanisms associated with cardiovascular and renal injury in hypertension and that hypertension itself can contribute to oxidative stress. The present review addresses the putative function of ROS in the pathogenesis of hypertension and focuses on the role of Noxs in ROS generation in vessels and the kidney. Implications of oxidative stress in human hypertension are discussed, and clinical uncertainties are highlighted.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Montezano, Dr Augusto and Touyz, Professor Rhian
Authors: Montezano, A.C., and Touyz, R.M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Annals of Medicine
ISSN:0785-3890

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