Effect of brachycephalic, mesaticephalic, and dolichocephalic head conformations on olfactory bulb angle and orientation in dogs as determined by use of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging

Hussein, A.K., Sullivan, M. and Penderis, J. (2012) Effect of brachycephalic, mesaticephalic, and dolichocephalic head conformations on olfactory bulb angle and orientation in dogs as determined by use of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 73(7), pp. 946-951. (doi: 10.2460/ajvr.73.7.946)

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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of head conformation (brachycephalic, mesaticephalic, and dolichocephalic) on olfactory bulb angle and orientation in dogs by use of in vivo MRI. <p/>Animals—40 client-owned dogs undergoing MRI for diagnosis of conditions that did not affect skull conformation or olfactory bulb anatomy. <p/>Procedures—For each dog, 2 head conformation indices were calculated. Olfactory bulb angle and an index of olfactory bulb orientation relative to the rest of the CNS were determined by use of measurements obtained from sagittal T2-weighted MRI images. <p/>Results—A significant negative correlation was found between olfactory bulb angle and values of both head conformation indices. Ventral orientation of olfactory bulbs was significantly correlated with high head conformation index values (ie, brachycephalic head conformation). <p/>Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Low olfactory bulb angles and ventral olfactory bulb orientations were associated with brachycephalia. Positioning of the olfactory bulbs, cribriform plate, and ethmoid turbinates was related. Indices of olfactory bulb angle and orientation may be useful for identification of dogs with extremely brachycephalic head conformations. Such information may be used by breeders to reduce the incidence or severity of brachycephalic-associated diseases.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Sullivan, Professor Martin and Penderis, Professor Jacques
Authors: Hussein, A.K., Sullivan, M., and Penderis, J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:American Journal of Veterinary Research
ISSN:0002-9645

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