Acute phase protein levels in dogs with mast cell tumours and sarcomas

Chase, D., McLauchlan, G., Eckersall, P. , Pratschke, J., Parkin, T. and Pratschke, K. (2012) Acute phase protein levels in dogs with mast cell tumours and sarcomas. Veterinary Record, 170(25), p. 648. (doi:10.1136/vr.100401)

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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.100401

Abstract

<p><b>Context:</b> The acute phase protein response is part of a non-specific and complex host response to inflammation. It occurs shortly after tissue injury and may be induced by a range of different causes, including infectious, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or immunological disease. Although it was conventionally believed that APPs were exclusively hepatocyte derived, there is increasing evidence to support extra-hepatic generation in neoplastic and other disease states. In people, C-reactive protein (CRP) has been shown to be of value in identifying metastatic disease from primary renal tumours as well as showing promise for monitoring rejection of renal transplants. Serum CRP correlates with survival in colorectal cancer and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma while serum amyloid A (SAA) concentrations correlate with cancer activity, stage and prognosis in gastric tumours. Recent immunohistochemical studies in people with oesophageal carcinoma suggest that tumour tissue may itself elaborate APP with a poorer survival and outcome associated with tumours elaborating higher levels of CRP. A similar association has been seen between alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and colorectal tumours and ovarian carcinoma.</p> <p>As yet, studies regarding APP values in neoplastic conditions in dogs are limited, and many are non-specific. In veterinary patients, elevated levels of AGP have been identified in dogs with a range of tumours with localisation to liver and splenic tissue in one study. Another study found higher levels of AGP in dogs with non-specific tumours of grade III-IV based on the WHO Tumour Node Metastasis (TNM) scale and elevated serum AGP has been documented in non-specific tumour-bearing cats. Elevated CRP levels have been documented in both dogs and cats with lymphoma and serum CRP may be used as an indicator of complete remission status in dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Elevated levels of CRP, Haptoglobin (Hp) and SAA have been identified in dogs with mammary tumours, with significant increases over normal in the presence of metastatic disease, primary tumours greater than 5cm in diameter and those with ulceration.</p> <p>In this study we evaluated an APP profile using four APPs (CRP, Hp, SAA and AGP), in dogs with mast cell tumours (MCTs) and sarcomas to assess whether the APP profile would change in reflection of tumour presence; whether the extent of any change would correlate with tumour grade; and whether the changes would differ with tumour type.</p> <p><b>Approach:</b> Patients with naturally occurring MCTs and sarcomas presenting for staging and treatment were included if they met the study criteria. Criteria for inclusion were that the patient was not currently being treated with steroids, did not have a recent history of infectious or inflammatory disease other than the tumour, a definitive histological diagnosis was available and a full staging procedure was completed prior to surgery using standard oncological protocols to identify metastatic disease where present. Following surgical resection each tumour was submitted for full histological evaluation and grading to include assessment of the margins of excision. Cases were only enrolled in the study if blood sampling formed part of the clinical investigation and/or treatment, and where residual blood was available after diagnostic sampling which would otherwise have been disposed of as clinical waste. In brief, the CRP levels were determined by immunoturbidometric assay and Hp by means of haemoglobin binding capacity assay. SAA was measured with a commercial canine ELISA kit (TriDelta Development, Dublin, Ireland) and AGP was measured with a commercial radial immunodiffusion assay (J-Path Inc, Tokyo, Japan).</p> <p><b>Results:</b> All comparisons using continuous data were checked for normality and equality of variances and appropriate statistical tests were employed (student’s t test operationalised as a two-sample Welch’s test for samples of unequal sizes and variances, Mann-Whitney, Chi-square and Fishers exact tests as appropriate). In MCTs, the CRP and AGP were elevated above reference ranges, Hp showed no significant change and SAA dropped relative to the reference range. In sarcoma patients CRP, Hp and AGP were all elevated above reference ranges. None of the tumour grade differences were significant apart from SAA in sarcoma patients where values in grade 2 sarcoma were significantly higher than those in grade 1.</p> <p><b>Interpretation and notes of caution:</b> The numbers in our groups were small which compromises the validity of statistical evaluation so our results must be interpreted with caution. However some interesting relationships have emerged from the initial evaluation which suggests that APP profiles may have potential for screening in patients with neoplastic disease. For patients with MCTs, CRP and AGP levels would be expected to increase, with a concurrent drop in SAA levels. In sarcoma patients CRP, AGP and Hp can all be expected to increase. These initial results need to be evaluated in larger numbers of cases with naturally occurring disease to validate the findings, to assess whether the presence and extent of metastatic disease has a significant effect, and also to confirm whether the values alter after surgical resection of the primary tumour.</p> <p><b>Significance of findings:</b> If there are consistent and specific changes in APP profiles associated with different tumour types in dogs, as is the case with a wide range of cancers in humans, then there may be potential for APP profiles on routine blood samples to be used as indicators of disease, or where monitoring for recurrence. Whether they could also have potential for assessment of the presence of metastatic disease and prognosis as in people is unknown as yet.</p>

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Acute phase, mast cell tumour, sarcoma, dog
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Eckersall, Professor Peter and Pratschke, Ms Kathryn and McLauchlan, Mr Gerard and Parkin, Professor Timothy
Authors: Chase, D., McLauchlan, G., Eckersall, P., Pratschke, J., Parkin, T., and Pratschke, K.
Subjects:S Agriculture > SF Animal culture > SF600 Veterinary Medicine
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Veterinary Record
Publisher:B M J Group
ISSN:0042-4900
ISSN (Online):2042-7670
Published Online:01 June 2012
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2012 BMJ
First Published:First published in Veterinary Record 170(25):648
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
525631The potential role of acute phase proteins in assessment of tumour extent and prognosis in dogsKathryn PratschkeThe Kennel Club Charitable Trust (KCCT)UNSPECIFIEDVET - SMALL ANIMAL CLINICAL SCIENCES