Equine paranasal sinus disease: a long-term study of 200 cases (1997-2009): ancillary diagnostic findings and involvement of the various sinus compartments

Dixon, P.M., Parkin, T.D. , Collins, N., Hawkes, C., Townsend, N., Tremaine, W.H., Fisher, G., Ealey, R. and Barakzai, S.Z. (2012) Equine paranasal sinus disease: a long-term study of 200 cases (1997-2009): ancillary diagnostic findings and involvement of the various sinus compartments. Equine Veterinary Journal, 44(3), pp. 267-271. (doi:10.1111/j.2042-3306.2011.00420.x)

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Abstract

Reasons for performing study: There is a lack of objective information on the value of ancillary diagnostic techniques used to investigate equine sinus disease, and also on which sinus compartments are commonly affected in this disorder. <p/>Objectives: To record the ancillary diagnostic findings used to investigate equine sinus disease and to document which compartments are affected. <p/>Materials and methods: The clinical case records of 200 consecutive cases of sinus disease, including subacute (<2 months' duration) primary (n = 52); chronic (>2 months' duration) primary (n = 37); dental (n = 40); traumatic (n = 13); sinus cyst (n = 26); sinus neoplasia (n = 10); dental related oromaxillary fistula (n = 8); mycotic sinusitis (n = 7) and intra-sinus progressive ethmoid haematoma (n = 7) were retrospectively examined. <p/>Results: Nasal endoscopy showed exudate draining from the sino-nasal ostia in 88% of cases and a sino-nasal fistula was present in 15% of cases. Sinoscopy was performed in 79% of cases and was of great diagnostic value. More recently, 22% of cases had fenestration of the ventral conchal bulla performed to allow sinoscopy of the rostral sinus compartments. Radiography was performed in 97% of cases and showed intra-sinus fluid lines to be common (69% prevalence) in subacute primary sinusitis. Radiographic dental apical changes were not specific to dental sinusitis, e.g. 29% of chronic primary sinusitis cases had radiographic dental changes. Scintigraphy was performed in 20% of cases and was helpful in identifying dental apical changes when radiography was inconclusive. Overall, the caudal maxillary (78% involvement) and rostral maxillary (61%) sinuses were most commonly affected, with the ventral conchal sinus (VCS) (54% involvement) and conchofrontal sinuses (48%) less so. The VCS showed the greatest tendency to contain inspissated pus (present in 46% of all affected VCS). <p/>Conclusions: Nasal endoscopy, sinoscopy and skull radiography are of great value in diagnosing the presence and causes of equine sinus disease.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Parkin, Professor Timothy
Authors: Dixon, P.M., Parkin, T.D., Collins, N., Hawkes, C., Townsend, N., Tremaine, W.H., Fisher, G., Ealey, R., and Barakzai, S.Z.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Equine Veterinary Journal
Publisher:Equine Veterinary Journal Ltd
ISSN:0425-1644
Published Online:04 August 2011

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