Knots in trees: strain distribution in a naturally optimised structure

Buksnowitz, C., Hackspiel, C., Hofstetter, K., Müller, U., Gindl, W., Teischinger, A. and Konnerth, J. (2010) Knots in trees: strain distribution in a naturally optimised structure. Wood Science and Technology, 44(3), pp. 389-398. (doi:10.1007/s00226-010-0352-4)

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Abstract

Electronic speckle pattern interferometry was applied to directly measure the distribution of longitudinal, tangential, and shear strains in small boards of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) exposed to tensile load in longitudinal direction. A sample with a central intergrown knot and one with an equivalent loose knot were compared with reference samples made of clear wood with an artificial central circular or square hole, respectively. The observed measurements were compared with a finite element (FE) simulation. The FE model was based on a geometric model to quantify the local fibre orientation and a micromechanical model to estimate elastic constants of clear wood and knot tissue. Both the measurements and simulation clearly illustrate a rather homogenous strain distribution around the intergrown knot. In comparison, the natural optimisation of dispersing strain peaks is less efficient in the case of loose knots. The artificial circular and square holes in samples with parallel fibre orientation lead to high gradients in the strain field and peak values in vicinity of the disturbance.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:De Borst, Dr Karin
Authors: Buksnowitz, C., Hackspiel, C., Hofstetter, K., Müller, U., Gindl, W., Teischinger, A., and Konnerth, J.
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Infrastructure and Environment
Journal Name:Wood Science and Technology
ISSN:0043-7719
Published Online:26 June 2010

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