Adipocytes produce aldosterone through calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways: implications in diabetes mellitus-associated obesity and vascular dysfunction

Briones, A.M. et al. (2012) Adipocytes produce aldosterone through calcineurin-dependent signaling pathways: implications in diabetes mellitus-associated obesity and vascular dysfunction. Hypertension, 59(9), pp. 1069-1078. (doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.190223)

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Abstract

We reported aldosterone as a novel adipocyte-derived factor that regulates vascular function. We aimed to investigate molecular mechanisms, signaling pathways, and functional significance of adipocyte-derived aldosterone and to test whether adipocyte-derived aldosterone is increased in diabetes mellitus–associated obesity, which contributes to vascular dysfunction. Studies were performed in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line and mature adipocytes isolated from human and mouse (C57BL/6J) adipose tissue. Mesenteric arteries with and without perivascular fat and mature adipocytes were obtained from obese diabetic db/db and control db/+ mice. Aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2; mRNA and protein) was detected in 3T3-L1 and mature adipocytes, which secrete aldosterone basally and in response to angiotensin II (Ang II). In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Ang II stimulation increased aldosterone secretion and CYP11B2 expression. Ang II effects were blunted by an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) and inhibitors of calcineurin (cyclosporine A and FK506) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (VIVIT). FAD286 (aldosterone synthase inhibitor) blunted adipocyte differentiation. In candesartan-treated db/db mice (1 mg/kg per day, 4 weeks) increased plasma aldosterone, CYP11B2 expression, and aldosterone secretion were reduced. Acetylcholine-induced relaxation in db/db mesenteric arteries containing perivascular fat was improved by eplerenone (mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist) without effect in db/+ mice. Adipocytes possess aldosterone synthase and produce aldosterone in an Ang II/Ang II type 1 receptor/calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T-cells–dependent manner. Functionally adipocyte-derived aldosterone regulates adipocyte differentiation and vascular function in an autocrine and paracrine manner, respectively. These novel findings identify adipocytes as a putative link between aldosterone and vascular dysfunction in diabetes mellitus–associated obesity.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Touyz, Professor Rhian
Authors: Briones, A.M., Nguyen Dinh Cat, A., Callera, G.E., Yogi, A., Burger, D., He, Y., Correa, J.W., Gagnon, A.M., Gomez-Sanchez, C.E., Gomez-Sanchez, E.P., Sorisky, A., Ooi, T.C., Ruzicka, M., Burns, K.D., and Touyz, R.M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Hypertension
Publisher:American Heart Association
ISSN:0194-911X
ISSN (Online):1524-4563
Published Online:09 April 2012

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