Aging partially restores the efficacy of malaria vector control in insecticide-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso

Jones, C.M., Sanou, A., Guelbeogo, W.M., Sagnon, N., Johnson, P.C.D. and Ranson, H. (2012) Aging partially restores the efficacy of malaria vector control in insecticide-resistant populations of Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso. Malaria Journal, 11(24), (doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-24)

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Abstract


Background: The operational impact of insecticide resistance on the effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) is poorly understood. One factor which may prolong the effectiveness of these tools in the field is the increase in insecticide susceptibility with mosquito age. In this study, LLINs and IRS were tested against young (three to five days) and old (17-19 days) pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae s.l. from Burkina Faso.

Methods: Blood-fed adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. were collected from south-west Burkina Faso and identified to species/form level. Cohorts of the F1 progeny of An. gambiae s.s. S-forms were exposed to deltamethrin (0.05%) at three to five or 17-19 days post-emergence and tested for the frequency of the resistance allele 1014F. Isofemale lines of the M, S- form of An. gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis were exposed in WHO cone tests to either a) LLINs deployed in households for two years or (b) bendiocarb sprayed walls.

Results: Mortality rates in response to deltamethrin (0.05%) increased from levels indicative of strong resistance in three to five day old F1 mosquitoes, to near full susceptibility in the 17-19 day old cohort. On exposure to LLINs sampled from the field, the mortality rate in isofemale lines was higher in older mosquitoes than young (OR = 5.28, CI 95% = 2.81-9.92), although the mortality estimates were affected by the LLIN tested. In general, the LLINs sampled from the field performed poorly in WHO cone bioassays using either laboratory susceptible or field caught mosquito populations. Finally, there was a clear relationship between mortality and age on exposure to bendiocarb-sprayed walls, with older mosquitoes again proving more susceptible (OR = 3.39, CI 95% = 2.35-4.90).

Conclusions: Age is a key factor determining the susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, not only in laboratory studies, but in response to field-based vector control interventions. This has important implications for understanding the epidemiological impact of resistance. If mosquitoes old enough to transmit malaria are still being suppressed with available insecticides, is resistance potentially having less of an impact than often assumed? However, the poor performance of LLINs used in this study in Burkina Faso, is a cause for concern and requires urgent investigation.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Johnson, Dr Paul
Authors: Jones, C.M., Sanou, A., Guelbeogo, W.M., Sagnon, N., Johnson, P.C.D., and Ranson, H.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > Robertson Centre
Journal Name:Malaria Journal
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:1475-2875
ISSN (Online):1475-2875
Published Online:23 January 2012
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2012 The Authors
First Published:First published in Malaria Journal 11:24
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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