Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: the European Male Ageing Study

Lee, D.M. et al. (2012) Association of hypogonadism with vitamin D status: the European Male Ageing Study. European Journal of Endocrinology, 166(1), pp. 77-85. (doi:10.1530/EJE-11-0743)

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Abstract

<p>Objective: Interrelationships between hormones of the hypothalamic–pituitary–testicular (HPT) axis, hypogonadism, vitamin D and seasonality remain poorly defined. We investigated whether HPT axis hormones and hypogonadism are associated with serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in men.</p> <p>Design and methods: Cross-sectional survey of 3369 community-dwelling men aged 40–79 years in eight European centres. Testosterone (T), oestradiol (E2) and dihydrotestosterone were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; LH, FSH, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), 25(OH)D and parathyroid hormone by immunoassay. Free T was calculated from total T, SHBG and albumin. Gonadal status was categorised as eugonadal (normal T/LH), secondary (low T, low/normal LH), primary (low T, elevated LH) and compensated (normal T, elevated LH) hypogonadism. Associations of HPT axis hormones with 25(OH)D were examined using linear regression and hypogonadism with vitamin D using multinomial logistic regression.</p> <p>Results: In univariate analyses, free T levels were lower (P=0.02) and E2 and LH levels were higher (P<0.05) in men with vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <50 nmol/l). 25(OH)D was positively associated with total and free T and negatively with E2 and LH in age- and centre-adjusted linear regressions. After adjusting for health and lifestyle factors, no significant associations were observed between 25(OH)D and individual hormones of the HPT axis. However, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with compensated (relative risk ratio (RRR)=1.52, P=0.03) and secondary hypogonadism (RRR=1.16, P=0.05). Seasonal variation was only observed for 25(OH)D (P<0.001).</p> <p>Conclusions: Secondary and compensated hypogonadism were associated with vitamin D deficiency and the clinical significance of this relationship warrants further investigation.</p>

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Written in collaboration with the EMAS Study Group
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Lean, Professor Michael
Authors: Lee, D.M., Tajar, A., Pye, S.R., Boonen, S., Vanderschueren, D., Bouillon, R., O'Neill, T.W., Bartfai, G., Casanueva, F.F., Finn, J.D., Forti, G., Giwercman, A., Han, T.S., Huhtaniemi, I.T., Kula, K., Lean, M.E.J., Pendleton, N., Punab, M., and Wu, F.C.W.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:European Journal of Endocrinology
ISSN:0804-4643
Published Online:02 November 2011

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