Construction and validation of anisotropic and orthotropic ventricular geometries for quantitative predictive cardiac electrophysiology

Benson, A. P. et al. (2011) Construction and validation of anisotropic and orthotropic ventricular geometries for quantitative predictive cardiac electrophysiology. Interface Focus, 1(1), pp. 101-116. (doi: 10.1098/rsfs.2010.0005)

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Reaction-diffusion computational models of cardiac electrophysiology require both dynamic excitation models that reconstruct the action potentials of myocytes as well as datasets of cardiac geometry and architecture that provide the electrical diffusion tensor D, which determines how excitation spreads through the tissue. We illustrate an experimental pipeline we have developed in our laboratories for constructing and validating such datasets. The tensor D changes with location in the myocardium, and is determined by tissue architecture. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) provides three eigenvectors e(i) and eigenvalues lambda(i) at each voxel throughout the tissue that can be used to reconstruct this architecture. The primary eigenvector e(1) is a histologically validated measure of myocyte orientation (responsible for anisotropic propagation). The secondary and tertiary eigenvectors (e(2) and e(3)) specify the directions of any orthotropic structure if lambda(2) is significantly greater than lambda(3)-this orthotropy has been identified with sheets or cleavage planes. For simulations, the components of D are scaled in the fibre and cross-fibre directions for anisotropic simulations (or fibre, sheet and sheet normal directions for orthotropic tissues) so that simulated conduction velocities match values from optical imaging or plunge electrode experiments. The simulated pattern of propagation of action potentials in the models is partially validated by optical recordings of spatio-temporal activity on the surfaces of hearts. We also describe several techniques that enhance components of the pipeline, or that allow the pipeline to be applied to different areas of research: Q ball imaging provides evidence for multi-modal orientation distributions within a fraction of voxels, infarcts can be identified by changes in the anisotropic structure-irregularity in myocyte orientation and a decrease in fractional anisotropy, clinical imaging provides human ventricular geometry and can identify ischaemic and infarcted regions, and simulations in human geometries examine the roles of anisotropic and orthotropic architecture in the initiation of arrhythmias

Item Type:Articles
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Smith, Professor Godfrey
Authors: Benson, A. P., Bernus, O., Dierckx, H., Gilbert, S. H., Greenwood, J. P., Holden, A. V., Mohee, K., Plein, S., Radjenovic, A., Ries, M. E., Smith, G.L., Sourbron, S., and Walton, R. D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
Journal Name:Interface Focus
ISSN (Online):2042-8901
Published Online:03 December 2010

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