Voltage-gated potassium channel-associated limbic encephalitis in the west of Scotland: case reports and literature review

Reid, J.M., Foley, P. and Willison, H.J. (2009) Voltage-gated potassium channel-associated limbic encephalitis in the west of Scotland: case reports and literature review. Scottish Medical Journal, 54(4), pp. 27-31. (doi:10.1258/rsmsmj.54.4.27)

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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/rsmsmj.54.4.27

Abstract

Background and Aims: The syndrome of limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with antibodies against voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC-LE) has recently been described. The number of published cases is however small. We therefore aimed to review all cases seen at our centre and compare with published cases.

Methods: Retrospective cases of VGKC-LE were identified using a questionnaire to Neurologists at the Southern General hospital, Glasgow, and by reviewing patients with a positive VGKC antibody test (2002-2007). Case-note review of identified cases and a literature review of all published cases of VGKC-LE were performed.

Results: Seven cases were identified (four female, age range 51- 81). Patients presented sub-acutely with seizures and anterograde memory loss. Five patients had medial temporal lobe change on cranial imaging. No paraneoplastic cases were identified. 5/7 patients made some improvement with immunotherapy. In 2006, 3/18 (17%) patients with a coded discharge of encephalitis were diagnosed with VGKC-LE. The literature review revealed 40 patients with VGKC-LE. Age, gender or VGKC level did not predict likelihood for a significant recovery. Patients treated ≤5 months of symptom onset with immunotherapy were more likely to make a significant recovery (83% vs. 45%, p=0.04).

Conclusion: VGKC-LE is being increasingly diagnosed and is best identified early and treated with immunotherapy to offer the greatest chance of recovery. This series and literature review expands the current published evidence in VGKC-LE.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Willison, Professor Hugh
Authors: Reid, J.M., Foley, P., and Willison, H.J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Scottish Medical Journal
ISSN:0036-9330
ISSN (Online):2045-6441

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