The Signal Peptide of a Recently Integrated Endogenous Sheep Betaretrovirus Envelope Plays a Major Role in Eluding Gag-Mediated Late Restriction

Armezzani, A., Arnaud, F., Caporale, M., di Meo, G., Iannuzzi, L., Murgia, C. and Palmarini, M. (2011) The Signal Peptide of a Recently Integrated Endogenous Sheep Betaretrovirus Envelope Plays a Major Role in Eluding Gag-Mediated Late Restriction. Journal of Virology, 85(14), pp. 7118-7128. (doi:10.1128/JVI.00407-11)

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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00407-11

Abstract

The exogenous and pathogenic Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) co-exists with highly related and biologically active endogenous retroviruses (enJSRVs). The endogenous enJS56A1 locus possesses a defective Gag polyprotein which blocks the late replication steps of related exogenous and endogenous retroviruses by a mechanism known as JSRV late restriction (JLR). Conversely, enJSRV-26, which most likely integrated into the sheep genome less than 200 years ago, is able to escape JLR. In this study, we demonstrate that the ability of enJSRV-26 to escape JLR is due to a single amino acid substitution in the signal peptide (SP) of its envelope glycoprotein. We show that the enJSRV-26 SP does not localize to the nucleolus, unlike the functional SPs of related exogenous and endogenous sheep betaretroviruses. In addition, the enJSRV-26 SP function as post-transcriptional regulator of viral gene expression is impaired. enJSRV-26 JLR escape relies on the presence of the functional enJS56A1 SP. Moreover, we show that the ratio between enJSRV-26 and enJS56A1 Gag is critical to elude JLR. Interestingly, we found that the domestic sheep has acquired, by genome amplification, several copies of the enJS56A1 provirus. These data further reinforce the notion that transdominant enJSRV proviruses have been positively selected in the domestic sheep, and that the co-evolution between endogenous and exogenous sheep betaretroviruses and their host is still occurring

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Caporale, Dr Marco and Palmarini, Professor Massimo and Arnaud, Mr Frederick and Armezzani, Miss Alessia and Murgia, Dr Claudio
Authors: Armezzani, A., Arnaud, F., Caporale, M., di Meo, G., Iannuzzi, L., Murgia, C., and Palmarini, M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Journal of Virology
ISSN:0022-538X

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