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We examined the flow pattern produced when liquid dye was actively injected into a fluid medium at various flows through five different commonly used spinal needles. At all flows, the Whitacre-type needles produced a directional stream exiting at an angle from the longitudinal axis. At intermediate rates the stream developed tracks which disappeared at faster rates. The Quincke needle always produced an undeviated stream of dye and did not form tracks at any flow rate. When a perspex plate (representing the spinal cord) was interposed in front of the needle, the dispersion of dye was always unidirectional from the Whitacre needle and bidirectional from the Quincke needle. The dye adhered to the surface of the plate as a concentrated film at slow rates and at faster rates it dispersed turbulently for both types of needle.
|Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:||Serpell, Dr Michael|
|Authors:||Serpell, M.G., and Gray, W.M.|
|College/School:||College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing|
|Published Online:||05 January 2004|