Formation of the Vysoka-Zlatno Cu-Au skarn-porphyry deposit, Slovakia

Kodera, P., Lexa, J. and Fallick, A. (2010) Formation of the Vysoka-Zlatno Cu-Au skarn-porphyry deposit, Slovakia. Mineralium Deposita, 45(8), pp. 817-843. (doi: 10.1007/s00126-010-0304-9)

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The central zone of the Miocene Štiavnica stratovolcano hosts several occurrences of Cu–Au skarn–porphyry mineralisation, related to granodiorite/quartz–diorite porphyry dyke clusters and stocks. Vysoká–Zlatno is the largest deposit (13.4 Mt at 0.52% Cu), with mineralised Mg–Ca exo- and endoskarns, developed at the prevolcanic basement level. The alteration pattern includes an internal K- and Na–Ca silicate zone, surrounded by phyllic and argillic zones, laterally grading into a propylitic zone. Fluid inclusions in quartz veinlets in the internal zone contain mostly saline brines with 31–70 wt.% NaCl eq. and temperatures of liquid–vapour homogenization (Th) of 186–575°C, indicating fluid heterogenisation. Garnet contains inclusions of variable salinity with 1–31 wt.% NaCl eq. and Th of 320–360°C. Quartz–chalcopyrite veinlets host mostly low-salinity fluid inclusions with 0–3 wt.% NaCl eq. and Th of 323–364°C. Data from sphalerite from the margin of the system indicate mixing with dilute and cooler fluids. The isotopic composition of fluids in equilibrium with K-alteration and most skarn minerals (both prograde and retrograde) indicates predominantly a magmatic origin (δ18Ofluid 2.5–12.3‰) with a minor meteoric component. Corresponding low δDfluid values are probably related to isotopic fractionation during exsolution of the fluid from crystallising magma in an open system. The data suggest the general pattern of a distant source of magmatic fluids that ascended above a zone of hydraulic fracturing below the temperature of ductile–brittle transition. The magma chamber at ∼5–6 km depth exsolved single-phase fluids, whose properties were controlled by changing PT conditions along their fluid paths. During early stages, ascending fluids display liquid–vapour immiscibility, followed by physical separation of both phases. Low-salinity liquid associated with ore veinlets probably represents a single-phase magmatic fluid/magmatic vapour which contracted into liquid upon its ascent.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Stiavnica stratovolcano; Skarn; Porphyry; stable isotopes; fluid inclusions; copper-gold; Slovakia
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Fallick, Professor Anthony
Authors: Kodera, P., Lexa, J., and Fallick, A.
Subjects:G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
College/School:College of Science and Engineering > Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre
Journal Name:Mineralium Deposita
ISSN (Online):1432-1866
Published Online:10 August 2010

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