Physiology and neural control of breathing during sleep

McKay, L.C. , Attalla, A. and Morrell, M.J. (2010) Physiology and neural control of breathing during sleep. In: McNicholas, W.T. and Bonsignore, M.R. (eds.) Sleep Apnoea. Series: European Respiratory Society monograph series (50). European Respiratory Society, pp. 1-16. ISBN 978-1-84984-007-1 (doi: 10.1183/​1025448x.00023909)

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<p>Sleep represents a period of vulnerability to ventilatory irregularities, even in healthy individuals. Moreover, the presence of disease magnifies both the risk and the consequences of sleep-disordered breathing. Respiratory disorders during sleep are highly prevalent in the population but despite this the underlying mechanisms leading to breathing instability remain poorly understood because of the limitations related to studying humans and the lack of non-mammalian models that can mimic the complexity of this integrated, physiological system. In this chapter we have reviewed the present understanding of brainstem respiratory control in non-mammalian models and how this control is modulated during sleep. Although much remains to be resolved, animal models are invaluable for the understanding of human respiratory control and vice versa.</p> <p>In humans, the onset of sleep brings about a number of physiological changes that have also been reviewed, such as a reduction in alveolar ventilation and chemosensitivity, as well as an increase in upper airway resistance. Moreover, the concept of loop gain has been used to predict the response of the respiratory control system to the sleep-related changes and hence, stability of breathing. It is hoped that combining evidence from these different models and methodologies will increase understanding of the respiratory control during sleep. Likewise, being aware of the pathophysiological mechanisms that lead to, or present as, sleep-disorderd breathing will result in improved clinical management and inform more targeted therapies.</p>

Item Type:Book Sections
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:McKay, Dr Leanne
Authors: McKay, L.C., Attalla, A., and Morrell, M.J.
Subjects:R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC0321 Neuroscience. Biological psychiatry. Neuropsychiatry
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Psychology & Neuroscience
Publisher:European Respiratory Society

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