Hyporesponsiveness of intestinal dendritic cells to TLR stimulation is limited to TLR4

Cerovic, V., Jenkins, C.D., Barnes, A.G.C., Milling, S.W.F. , MacPherson, G.G. and Klavinskis, L.S. (2009) Hyporesponsiveness of intestinal dendritic cells to TLR stimulation is limited to TLR4. Journal of Immunology, 182(4), pp. 2405-2415. (doi:10.4049/jimmunol.0802318)

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Abstract

Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial to intestinal immune regulation because of their roles in inducing protective immunity against pathogens while maintaining tolerance to commensal bacteria. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about intestinal DC responsiveness to innate immune stimuli via TLRs. We have previously shown that DCs migrating from the rat intestine in lymph (iLDCs) are hyporesponsive to LPS stimulation, thus possibly preventing harmful immune responses being induced to commensal flora. In this study, to understand how iLDC function is regulated by innate immune stimuli, we have characterized the expression and function of TLRs in iLDCs isolated from the thoracic duct lymph of mesenteric lymphadenectomized rats and compared these with DCs grown from bone marrow in the presence of Flt3 ligand. We show that iLDCs express mRNAs for all TLRs, but express significantly less TLR4 mRNA than bone marrow-derived DCs. Functionally, iLDCs could be activated by TLR agonists representing intestinal pathogen-associated molecular patterns, with the important exception of the TLR4 agonist LPS. Furthermore, we show that DCs in the intestinal wall interact directly with noninvasive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis spores), leading to an increase in the output of activated iLDCs into lymph, and that DCs containing spores are activated selectively. These data highlight a functional difference between TLR4 and other TLRs. As iLDCs can respond to TLR stimulation in vitro, there must be other mechanisms that prevent their activation by commensal bacteria under steady-state conditions.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Milling, Professor Simon and Cerovic, Dr Vuk
Authors: Cerovic, V., Jenkins, C.D., Barnes, A.G.C., Milling, S.W.F., MacPherson, G.G., and Klavinskis, L.S.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Journal of Immunology
ISSN:0022-1767

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