Hunt, K.J., Munih, M., and Donaldson, N. (1997) Feedback control of unsupported standing in paraplegia. Part I: optimal control approach. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering, 5(4), pp. 331-340.
This is the first of a pair of papers which describe an investigation into the feasibility of providing artificial balance to paraplegics using electrical stimulation of the paralyzed muscles. By bracing the body above the shanks, only stimulation of the plantarflexors is necessary. This arrangement prevents any influence from the intact neuromuscular system above the spinal cord lesion. Here, the authors extend the design of the controllers to a nested-loop LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) stimulation controller which has ankle moment feedback (inner loops) and inverted pendulum angle feedback (outer loop). Each control loop is tuned by two parameters, the control weighting and an observer rise-time, which together determine the behavior. The nested structure was chosen because it is robust, despite changes in the muscle properties (fatigue) and interference from spasticity.
|Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:||UNSPECIFIED|
|Authors:||Hunt, K.J., Munih, M., and Donaldson, N.|
|Subjects:||R Medicine > R Medicine (General)|
|College/School:||College of Science and Engineering > School of Engineering > Systems Power and Energy|
|Journal Name:||IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering|
|Publisher:||IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC|
|Copyright Holders:||© Copyright IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC|
|First Published:||First published in IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 5(4):331-340|
|Publisher Policy:||Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher|