Omega-3 fatty acids improve postprandial lipaemia in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria

Bell, S., Cooney, J., Packard, C.J. , Caslake, M. and Deighan, C.J. (2009) Omega-3 fatty acids improve postprandial lipaemia in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria. Atherosclerosis, 205(1), pp. 296-301. (doi:10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2008.12.002)

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Abstract

<b>Background</b>: Patients with nephrotic range proteinuria have a marked increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Qualitative and quantitative changes in lipids and lipoproteins contribute to this increased risk with an abundance of atherogenic triglyceride (TG) rich apolipoprotein B containing lipoproteins. TG rich lipoproteins predominate postprandially and are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Omega-3 fatty acids derived from fish oils have been shown to have beneficial effects on lipids and lipoproteins in patients without proteinuria. <b>Methods</b>: 17 patients with nephrotic range proteinuria and 17 age and sex matched controls were studied. Postprandial lipaemia was assessed in patients and controls, before and after 8 weeks treatment with 4 g daily of omega-3 fatty acids (Omacor). A standard fat load (90 g) was administered and blood sampling was performed in the fasting state and at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after the fat load. Chylomicrons and VLDL1 density fraction was isolated from plasma by density ultracentrifugation. Postprandial chylomicron and VLDL1 triglyceride concentrations were measured and quantified using the incremental area under the curve (AUC) method. <b>Results</b>: Baseline postprandial chylomicron TG AUC was greater in patients compared with controls: median 18.5 mmol/l h (interquartile range 8.9–32.6) vs 9.3 mmol/l h (4.8–14.4) p = 0.05. Following treatment patient chylomicron AUC fell [mean reduction 6.8 mmol/l h (95% CI 0.1–13.6) p = 0.05]. No significant reduction in chylomicron AUC was observed in the controls [mean reduction 3.9 mmol/l h (95% CI −3.6 to 11.5)]. As a result, following 8 weeks treatment with omega-3 fatty acids, patient and control chylomicron AUC were no longer significantly different [patients 13.5 mmol/l h (7.4–22.9), controls 7.2 mmol/l h (4.6–14.5) both median and IQR, p = nsd]. VLDL1 TG AUC did not differ at baseline between patients and controls. Furthermore, there was no significant effect on VLDL1 AUC following treatment in either group. <b>Conclusions</b>: We have shown that there is an excess of postprandial chylomicron density fraction in patients with nephrotic range proteinuria, which is reduced by treatment with omega-3 fatty acids. We suggest that this would be an ideal therapy in combination with statins for this high risk group of patients.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Caslake, Professor Muriel and Cooney, Mrs Josephine and Packard, Professor Chris
Authors: Bell, S., Cooney, J., Packard, C.J., Caslake, M., and Deighan, C.J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences
Journal Name:Atherosclerosis
ISSN:0021-9150
ISSN (Online):1879-1484
Published Online:06 December 2008

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