Exposure to a complex cocktail of environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds disturbs the kisspeptin/GPR54 system in ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland

Bellingham, M. , Fowler, P. A., Amezaga, M. R., Rhind, S. M., Cotinot, C., Mandon-Pepin, B., Sharpe, R. M. and Evans, N. P. (2009) Exposure to a complex cocktail of environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds disturbs the kisspeptin/GPR54 system in ovine hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(10), pp. 1556-1562. (doi:10.1289/ehp.0900699)

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Abstract

Background: Ubiquitous environmental chemicals, including endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), are associated with declining human reproductive health, as well as an increasing incidence of cancers of the reproductive system. Verifying such links requires animal models exposed to “real-life,” environmentally relevant concentrations/mixtures of EDC, particularly in utero, when sensitivity to EDC exposure is maximal.<p></p> Objectives: We evaluated the effects of maternal exposure to a pollutant cocktail (sewage sludge) on the ovine fetal reproductive neuroendocrine axes, particularly the kisspeptin (KiSS-1)/GPR54 (G-protein–coupled receptor 54) system.<p></p> Methods: KiSS-1, GPR54, and ERα (estrogen receptor α) mRNA expression was quantified in control (C) and treated (T) maternal and fetal (110-day) hypothalami and pituitary glands using semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and colocalization of kisspeptin with LHβ (luteinizing hormone β) and ERα in C and T fetal pituitary glands quantified using dual-labeling immunohistochemistry.<p></p> Results: Fetuses exposed in utero to the EDC mixture showed reduced KiSS-1 mRNA expression across three hypothalamic regions examined (rostral, mid, and caudal) and had fewer kisspetin immunopositive cells colocalized with both LHβ and ERα in the pituitary gland. In contrast, treatment had no effect on parameters measured in the adult ewe hypothalamus or pituitary.<p></p> Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the developing fetus is sensitive to real-world mixtures of environmental chemicals, which cause significant neuroendocrine alterations. The important role of kisspeptin/GPR54 in regulating puberty and adult reproduction means that in utero disruption of this system is likely to have long-term consequences in adulthood and represents a novel, additional pathway through which environmental chemicals perturb human reproduction.<p></p>

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Bellingham, Dr Michelle and Evans, Professor Neil
Authors: Bellingham, M., Fowler, P. A., Amezaga, M. R., Rhind, S. M., Cotinot, C., Mandon-Pepin, B., Sharpe, R. M., and Evans, N. P.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Journal Name:Environmental Health Perspectives
Publisher:National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
ISSN:0091-6765
ISSN (Online):1552-9924
Published Online:05 June 2009
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2009 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
First Published:First published in Environmental Health Perspectives 117(10:1556-1562
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the copyright policy of the publisher.

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