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DNA vaccination affords significant protection against feline immunodeficiency virus infection without inducing detectable antiviral antibodies

Hosie, M.J. et al. (1998) DNA vaccination affords significant protection against feline immunodeficiency virus infection without inducing detectable antiviral antibodies. Journal of Virology, 72 (9). pp. 7310-7319. ISSN 0022-538X

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Publisher's URL: http://jvi.asm.org/cgi/content/abstract/72/9/7310

Abstract

To test the potential of a multigene DNA vaccine against lentivirus infection, we generated a defective mutant provirus of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) with an in-frame deletion in pol (FIV[Delta]RT). In a first experiment, FIV[Delta]RT DNA was administered intramuscularly to 10 animals, half of which also received feline gamma interferon (IFN-γ) DNA. The DNA was administered in four 100-μg doses at 0, 10, and 23 weeks. Immunization with FIV[Delta]RT elicited cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses to FIV Gag and Env in the absence of a serological response. After challenge with homologous virus at week 26, all 10 of the control animals became seropositive and viremic but 4 of the 10 vaccinates remained seronegative and virus free. Furthermore, quantitative virus isolation and quantitative PCR analysis of viral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed significantly lower virus loads in the FIV[Delta]RT vaccinates than in the controls. Immunization with FIV[Delta]RT in conjunction with IFN-γ gave the highest proportion of protected cats, with only two of five vaccinates showing evidence of infection following challenge. In a second experiment involving two groups (FIV[Delta]RT plus IFN-γ and IFN-γ alone), the immunization schedule was reduced to 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Once again, CTL responses were seen prior to challenge in the absence of detectable antibodies. Two of five cats receiving the proviral DNA vaccine were protected against infection, with an overall reduction in virus load compared to the five infected controls. These findings demonstrate that DNA vaccination can elicit protection against lentivirus infection in the absence of a serological response and suggest the need to reconsider efficacy criteria for lentivirus vaccines.

Item Type:Article
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Willett, Prof Brian
Authors: Hosie, M.J., Flynn, J.N., Rigby, M.A., Cannon, C., Dunsford, T., Mackay, N.A., Argyle, D., Willett, B.J., Miyazawa, T., Onions, D.E., Jarrett, O., and Neil, J.C.
Subjects:S Agriculture > SF Animal culture > SF600 Veterinary Medicine
Q Science > QR Microbiology > QR355 Virology
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation > Centre for Virus Research
Journal Name:Journal of Virology
Journal Abbr.:J. Virol.
ISSN:0022-538X
ISSN (Online):1098-5514

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