SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence at urban and rural sites in Kaduna State, Nigeria, during October/November 2021, immediately prior to detection of the Omicron variant

Chechet, G. D., Kwaga, J. K.P., Yahaya, J., Noyes, H., MacLeod, A. and Adamson, W. E. (2022) SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence at urban and rural sites in Kaduna State, Nigeria, during October/November 2021, immediately prior to detection of the Omicron variant. International Journal of Epidemiology, (doi: 10.1093/ije/dyac141) (PMID:35771662) (Early Online Publication)

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Abstract

Background: Nigeria is Africa’s most populated country. By November 2021 it had experienced three waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Peer-reviewed seroprevalence data assessing the proportion of the Nigerian population that have been infected were extremely limited. Methods: We conducted a serosurvey in one urban site (n = 400) and one rural site (n = 402) in Kaduna State, Nigeria between 11 October 2021 and 8 November 2021. Z-tests were used to compare seroprevalence across age groups, locations and sexes. T tests were used to determine whether age or household size are associated with seropositivity. Associations between seropositivity and recent history of common Covid-19 symptoms were tested using logistic regression. Results: SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 42.5% an 53.5% of participants at the urban and rural sites, respectively The overall age- and sex- stratified seroprevalence was 43.7% (42.2% for unvaccinated individuals). The data indicate an infection rate in Kaduna State ≥359-fold the rate derived from polymerase chain reaction-confirmed cases. In the urban site, seroprevalence among females and participants aged <20 was lower than other groups. Reporting loss of sense of taste and/or smell was strongly associated with seropositive status. Associations with seropositivity were also found for the reporting of dry cough, fever, headache, nausea and sore throat. Conclusions: This study provides baseline SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in Kaduna State, Nigeria, immediately prior to the spread of the Omicron variant. It indicates that in October/November 2021, approximately 56% of the population did not have detectable antibodies, and population subgroups with particularly low seroprevalence remain. It highlights limitations in using PCR-confirmed cases to estimate infection rates. The data will inform public health strategies in Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries with limited SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence data.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding: This work was funded by the University of Glasgow COVID-19 Researcher Support Scheme.
Status:Early Online Publication
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:MacLeod, Professor Annette and Adamson, Dr Walt
Authors: Chechet, G. D., Kwaga, J. K.P., Yahaya, J., Noyes, H., MacLeod, A., and Adamson, W. E.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:International Journal of Epidemiology
Publisher:Oxford University Press
ISSN:0300-5771
ISSN (Online):1464-3685
Published Online:28 June 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Author(s)
First Published:First published in International Journal of Epidemiology 2022
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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