Scaling-up the delivery of dog vaccination campaigns against rabies in Tanzania

Sambo, M. et al. (2022) Scaling-up the delivery of dog vaccination campaigns against rabies in Tanzania. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16(2), e0010124. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0010124) (PMID:35143490) (PMCID:PMC8865671)

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Abstract

An increasing number of countries are committing to meet the global target to eliminate human deaths from dog-mediated rabies by 2030. Mass dog vaccination is central to this strategy. To interrupt rabies transmission from dogs to humans, the World Health Organization recommends that vaccination campaigns should be carried out every year in all dog-owning communities vaccinating 70% of their susceptible dogs. Monitoring and evaluation of dog vaccination campaigns are needed to measure progress towards elimination. In this study, we measured the delivery performance of large-scale vaccination campaigns implemented in 25 districts in south-east Tanzania from 2010 until 2017. We used regression modelling to infer the factors associated with, and potentially influencing the successful delivery of vaccination campaigns. During 2010–2017, five rounds of vaccination campaigns were carried out, vaccinating in total 349,513 dogs in 2,066 administrative vaccination units (rural villages or urban wards). Progressively more dogs were vaccinated over the successive campaigns. The campaigns did not reach all vaccination units each year, with only 16–28% of districts achieving 100% campaign completeness (where all units were vaccinated). During 2013–2017 when vaccination coverage was monitored, approximately 20% of vaccination units achieved the recommended 70% coverage, with average coverage around 50%. Campaigns were also not completed at annual intervals, with the longest interval between campaigns being 27 months. Our analysis revealed that districts with higher budgets generally achieved higher completeness, with a twofold difference in district budget increasing the odds of a vaccination unit being reached by a campaign by slightly more than twofold (OR: 2.29; 95% CI: 1.69–3.09). However, higher budgets did not necessarily result in higher coverage within vaccination units that were reached. We recommend national programs regularly monitor and evaluate the performance of their vaccination campaigns, so as to identify factors hindering their effective delivery and to guide remedial action.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Steenson, Miss Rachel and changalucha, Mr joel and Lushasi, Mr Kennedy and Hampson, Professor Katie and Sambo, Maganga and Johnson, Dr Paul and Cleaveland, Professor Sarah and Ferguson, Dr Elaine
Creator Roles:
Sambo, M.Conceptualization, Data curation, Formal analysis, Investigation, Methodology, Validation, Visualization, Writing – original draft, Writing – review and editing
Ferguson, E. A.Data curation, Formal analysis, Validation, Visualization, Writing – review and editing
Changalucha, J.Investigation, Methodology, Writing – review and editing
Cleaveland, S.Funding acquisition, Writing – review and editing
Lushasi, K.Investigation, Methodology
Steenson, R.Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – review and editing
Johnson, P. C.D.Formal analysis, Supervision, Validation, Writing – review and editing
Hampson, K.Formal analysis, Funding acquisition, Resources, Supervision, Validation, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Sambo, M., Ferguson, E. A., Abela-Ridder, B., Changalucha, J., Cleaveland, S., Lushasi, K., Mchau, G. J., Nanai, A., Nonga, H., Steenson, R., Johnson, P. C.D., and Hampson, K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Journal Name:PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Publisher:Public Library of Science
ISSN:1935-2727
ISSN (Online):1935-2735
Published Online:10 February 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 Sambo et al.
First Published:First published in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 16(2): e0010124
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
Data DOI:10.5281/zenodo.5854712

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
165644Hierarchical epidemiology: the spread and persistence of infectious diseases in complex landscapesKatie HampsonWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)095787/Z/11/ZInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
301620The Science of Rabies EliminationKatie HampsonWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)207569/Z/17/ZInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine