The impact of changes in COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on alcohol consumption and drinking occasion characteristics in Scotland and England in 2020: an interrupted time-series analysis

Hardie, I. , Stevely, A. K., Sasso, A., Meier, P. S. and Holmes, J. (2022) The impact of changes in COVID-19 lockdown restrictions on alcohol consumption and drinking occasion characteristics in Scotland and England in 2020: an interrupted time-series analysis. Addiction, 117(6), pp. 1622-1639. (doi: 10.1111/add.15794) (PMID:35108758)

[img] Text
261338.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.

6MB

Abstract

Background and Aims: Early evidence suggests that COVID-19 lockdown restrictions affect alcohol consumption. However, existing studies lack data on how drinking practices changed as restrictions disrupted people’s work, family life and socializing routines. We examined changes in consumption and drinking occasion characteristics during three periods of changing restrictions in Scotland/England. Design: Interrupted time-series analysis of repeat cross-sectional market research data (assessing step-level changes). Setting: Scotland/England, January 2009–December 2020. Participants: Scotland: 41 507 adult drinkers; England: 253 148 adult drinkers. Measurements: Three intervention points: March 2020 lockdown, July 2020 easing of restrictions and October 2020 re-introduction of some restrictions. Primary outcome: mean units consumed per week (total/off-trade/on-trade; 1 unit = 8 g ethanol). Secondary outcomes: drinking > 14 units per week, heavy drinking, drinking days per week, solitary drinking, drinking with family/partners, drinking with friends/colleagues, own-home drinking, drinking in someone else’s home and drinking start times. Findings: In Scotland, March 2020’s lockdown was associated with a 2.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.61, 4.02] increase in off-trade (i.e. shop-bought) units per week, a −2.84 (95% CI = −3.63, −2.06) decrease in on-trade (i.e. licensed venues) units per week, but no statistically significant change in total units per week. July 2020’s easing of restrictions was associated with a 1.33 (95% CI = 0.05, 2.62) increase in on-trade units per week, but no statistically significant total/off-trade consumption changes. October 2020’s re-introduction of some restrictions was not associated with statistically significant consumption changes. Results for England were broadly similar. Lockdown restrictions were also associated with later drinking start times, fewer occasions in someone else’s home and with friends/colleagues, more own-home drinking and (in Scotland only) more solitary drinking. Conclusions: Reductions in on-trade alcohol consumption following COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in Scotland/England in 2020 were mainly offset by increased own-home drinking. This largely persisted in periods of greater/lesser restrictions. The shift towards off-trade drinking involved significant changes in the characteristics of drinking occasions.

Item Type:Articles
Keywords:Alcohol consumption, COVID-19 pandemic, drinking occasion characteristics, interrupted time-series analysis, lockdown restrictions, policy analysis.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Hardie, Dr Iain and Meier, Professor Petra
Creator Roles:
Hardie, I.Conceptualization, Formal analysis, Methodology, Writing – original draft
Meier, P. S.Conceptualization, Funding acquisition, Project administration, Writing – review and editing
Authors: Hardie, I., Stevely, A. K., Sasso, A., Meier, P. S., and Holmes, J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > MRC/CSO SPHSU
Journal Name:Addiction
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:0965-2140
ISSN (Online):1360-0443
Published Online:02 February 2022
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2022 The Authors
First Published:First published in Addiction 117(6): 1622-1639
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
Related URLs:

University Staff: Request a correction | Enlighten Editors: Update this record

Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
313837Understanding stability and change in British drinking using 16 years of market research dataPetra MeierEconomic and Social Research Council (ESRC)ES/R005257/2HW - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit
3048231Systems science research in public healthPetra MeierMedical Research Council (MRC)MC_UU_00022/5HW - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit
3048231Systems science research in public healthPetra MeierChief Scientist Office (CSO)SPHSU20HW - MRC/CSO Social and Public Health Sciences Unit