AZD1222/ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination induces a polyfunctional spike protein–specific T H 1 response with a diverse TCR repertoire

Swanson, P. A. et al. (2021) AZD1222/ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination induces a polyfunctional spike protein–specific T H 1 response with a diverse TCR repertoire. Science Translational Medicine, 13(620), eabj7211. (doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abj7211) (PMID:34591596)

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Abstract

AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19), a replication-deficient simian adenovirus–vectored vaccine, has demonstrated safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity against coronavirus disease 2019 in clinical trials and real-world studies. We characterized CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses induced by AZD1222 vaccination in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 296 unique vaccine recipients aged 18 to 85 years who enrolled in the phase 2/3 COV002 trial. Total spike protein–specific CD4+ T cell helper type 1 (TH1) and CD8+ T cell responses were increased in AZD1222-vaccinated adults of all ages after two doses of AZD1222. CD4+ TH2 responses after AZD1222 vaccination were not detected. Furthermore, AZD1222-specific TH1 and CD8+ T cells both displayed a high degree of polyfunctionality in all adult age groups. T cell receptor β (TCRβ) sequences from vaccinated participants mapped against TCR sequences known to react to SARS-CoV-2 revealed substantial breadth and depth across the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein for both AZD1222-induced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. Overall, AZD1222 vaccination induced a polyfunctional TH1-dominated T cell response, with broad CD4+ and CD8+ T cell coverage across the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:Funding was received from U.K. Research and Innovation (HCR1610) to T.L., National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) (HCR01621/HCR01620) to T.L., Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (HCR1590) to T.L., Thames Valley and South Midlands NIHR Clinical Research Network to A.J.P., The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to T.L., and AstraZeneca.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Thomson, Professor Emma and Smith, Professor Andrew
Authors: Swanson, P. A., Padilla, M., Hoyland, W., McGlinchey, K., Fields, P. A., Bibi, S., Faust, S. N., McDermott, A. B., Lambe, T., Pollard, A. J., Durham, N. M., Kelly, E. J., AstraZeneca/Oxford/VRC Study Group, ., and ., .
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing > Dental School
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation > Centre for Virus Research
Journal Name:Science Translational Medicine
Publisher:American Association for the Advancement of Science
ISSN:1946-6234
ISSN (Online):1946-6242
Published Online:30 September 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science
First Published:First published in Science Translational Medicine 13(620):eabj7211
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons Licence

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