Enhanced health facility surveys to support malaria control and elimination across different transmission settings in the Philippines

Reyes, R. A. et al. (2021) Enhanced health facility surveys to support malaria control and elimination across different transmission settings in the Philippines. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 104(3), pp. 968-978. (doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.20-0814) (PMID:33534761) (PMCID:PMC7941801)

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Abstract

Following substantial progress in malaria control in the Philippines, new surveillance approaches are needed to identify and target residual malaria transmission. This study evaluated an enhanced surveillance approach using rolling cross-sectional surveys of all health facility attendees augmented with molecular diagnostics and geolocation. Facility surveys were carried out in three sites representing different transmission intensities: Morong, Bataan (pre-elimination), Abra de Ilog, Occidental Mindoro (stable medium risk), and Rizal, Palawan (high risk, control). Only one rapid diagnostic test (RDT)–positive infection and no PCR confirmed infections were found in Bataan and Occidental Mindoro, suggesting the absence of transmission. In Palawan, the inclusion of all health facility attendees, regardless of symptoms, and use of molecular diagnostics identified 313 infected individuals in addition to 300 cases identified by routine screening of febrile patients with the RDT or microscopy. Of these, the majority (313/613) were subpatent infections and only detected using molecular methods. Simultaneous collection of GPS coordinates on tablet-based applications allowed real-time mapping of malaria infections. Risk factor analysis showed higher risks in children and indigenous groups, with bed net use having a protective effect. Subpatent infections were more common in men and older age-groups. Overall, malaria risks were not associated with participants’ classification, and some of the non-patient clinic attendees reported febrile illnesses (1.9%, 26/1,369), despite not seeking treatment, highlighting the widespread distribution of infection in communities. Together, these data illustrate the utility of health facility–based surveys to augment surveillance data to increase the probability of detecting infections in the wider community.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Fornace, Dr Kimberly
Authors: Reyes, R. A., Fornace, K. M., Macalinao, M. L. M., Boncayao, B. L., De La Fuente, E. S., Sabanal, H. M., Bareng, A. P. N., Medado, I. A. P., Mercado, E. S., Baquilod, M. S., Luchavez, J. S., Hafalla, J. C. R., Drakeley, C. J., and Espino, F. E. J.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Publisher:American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
ISSN:0002-9637
ISSN (Online):1476-1645
Published Online:18 January 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
First Published:First published in American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 104(3): 968-978
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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