Associations between long-term conditions and upper gastrointestinal cancer incidence: a prospective population-based cohort of UK Biobank participants

Marley, J., Nicholl, B. I. , Macdonald, S. , Mair, F. S. and Jani, B. D. (2021) Associations between long-term conditions and upper gastrointestinal cancer incidence: a prospective population-based cohort of UK Biobank participants. Journal of Multimorbidity and Comorbidity, 11, 2633556521. (doi: 10.1177/26335565211056136) (PMID:34820338) (PMCID:PMC8606912)

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Abstract

Background/Aims: Upper gastrointestinal cancers (oesophageal/stomach) have high mortality rates and are often diagnosed after the disease has progressed, making it important to identify populations at greater risk of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancer to promote earlier diagnosis. This study aims to determine if there is an association between a broad range of long-term conditions (LTCs) and incidence of UGI cancers. Method: A prospective-based cohort of 487,798 UK Biobank participants (age 37–73 years) after excluding previous UGI cancer. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression used to identify candidate LTCs as predictors for UGI cancer. Strength of association was studied using Cox’s regression adjusting for demographics and lifestyle factors. Results: After median follow-up period of 86 months, 598 participants developed oesophageal cancer; 397 developed stomach cancer. In fully adjusted models, participants with alcohol addiction (Hazard Ratio-HR 4.11, 95% Confidence Interval-CI 2.01–8.43), Barrett’s oesophagus (HR 5.68, 95% CI 3.36–9.58), bronchiectasis (HR 2.72, 95% CI 1.01–7.31), diabetes (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06–1.81), hiatus hernia (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.16–2.45), Parkinson’s disease (HR 3.86, 95% CI 1.60–9.37) and psoriasis/eczema (HR 1.53, 95% 1.08–2.17) were observed to have a higher risk of oesophageal cancer. Stomach cancer incidence was higher among participants with anorexia/bulimia (HR 8.86, 95% CI 1.20–65.14), Barrett’s oesophagus (HR 3.37, 95% 1.39–8.14), chronic fatigue syndrome (HR 3.36, 95% CI 1.25–9.03), glaucoma (HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.16–3.67), multiple sclerosis (HR 4.60, 95% CI 1.71–12.34), oesophageal stricture (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.46–74.46) and pernicious anaemia (HR 6.93, 95% CI 3.42–14.03). Conclusion: Previously unrecognised LTCs may have a role in symptom appraisal and risk assessment of UGI cancer in primary care. Further research should explore mechanisms underpinning these findings and determine whether they are replicable in other populations.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:BDJ’s time was partly funded by a Dawkins and Strutt research grant from the British Medical Association.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Jani, Dr Bhautesh and Nicholl, Dr Barbara and Macdonald, Professor Sara and Mair, Professor Frances and Marley, Ms Jennifer
Authors: Marley, J., Nicholl, B. I., Macdonald, S., Mair, F. S., and Jani, B. D.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Health and Wellbeing > General Practice and Primary Care
Journal Name:Journal of Multimorbidity and Comorbidity
Publisher:SAGE Publications
ISSN:2633-5565
ISSN (Online):2633-5565
Published Online:17 November 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Journal of Multimorbidity and Comorbidity 11: 26335565211056136
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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