Mechanisms of obesity in children and adults with phenylketonuria on contemporary treatment

Alghamdi, N., Alfheeaid, H. , Cochrane, B., Adam, S., Galloway, P., Cozens, A., Preston, T. , Malkova, D. and Gerasimidis, K. (2021) Mechanisms of obesity in children and adults with phenylketonuria on contemporary treatment. Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 46, pp. 539-543. (doi: 10.1016/j.clnesp.2021.10.012)

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Abstract

Background & aims: Obesity prevalence in people with phenylketonuria (PKU) is comparable to that of the general population but the underlying aetiology remains unknown. To assess body composition, dietary intake, moderate physical activity duration (MPAD) and energy expenditure (MPAEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), fasting and postprandial fat (FOx) and carbohydrate oxidation (CHOOx), in PKU people and healthy Controls. Methods: Participants were PKU people (n = 16) and healthy controls (n = 15). Body composition was measured with stable isotopes using deuterium as tracer, dietary intake from 4-day food diaries, MPAD and MPAEE from 7-day activity counts measured by triaxial accelerometers, calibrated against individual rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production, RMR, DIT, FOx and CHOOx by indirect calorimetry. Results: Body composition, DIT, FOx, CHOOx and RMR did not differ between the PKU and the Control groups. MPAD (PKU, 73 ± 26 min/week; Control, 152 ± 43 min/week) and MPAEE (PKU, 404 ± 127 kcal/week; Control, 741 ± 153 kcal/week) were lower (P < 0.05) in the PKU than the Control group. Raised phenylalanine levels were inversely related with MPAD and MPAEE. Energy intake and energy provided by protein did not differ between the groups, while energy proportion obtained from carbohydrate was higher (PKU, 60 ± 2%; Control, 51 ± 2%; P < 0.05) and from fat lower (PKU, 24 ± 2%; Control, 35 ± 3%; P < 0.05) in the PKU than in the Control group. Conclusion: People with PKU spent less time and expend less energy in moderate physical activity and have a higher intake of energy from CHO which may be involved in the underlying mechanisms of obesity in PKU.

Item Type:Articles
Additional Information:NA received doctorate scholarship from the Government of Saudi Arabia, Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia in London, UK.
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Alfheeaid, Dr Hani and Gerasimidis, Professor Konstantinos and Preston, Professor Tom and Galloway, Dr Peter and Malkova, Dr Dalia and Alghamdi, Nouf Ahmed K
Authors: Alghamdi, N., Alfheeaid, H., Cochrane, B., Adam, S., Galloway, P., Cozens, A., Preston, T., Malkova, D., and Gerasimidis, K.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
College of Science and Engineering > Scottish Universities Environmental Research Centre
Journal Name:Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:2405-4577
ISSN (Online):2405-4577
Published Online:22 October 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism
First Published:First published in Clinical Nutrition ESPEN 46: 539-543
Publisher Policy:Reproduced in accordance with the publisher copyright policy

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