Mapping socioeconomic inequalities in malaria in Sub-Sahara African countries

Carrasco-Escobar, G., Fornace, K. and Benmarhnia, T. (2021) Mapping socioeconomic inequalities in malaria in Sub-Sahara African countries. Scientific Reports, 11, 15121. (doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-94601-x) (PMID:34302015) (PMCID:PMC8302762)

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Abstract

Despite reductions in malaria incidence and mortality across Sub-Saharan (SSA) countries, malaria control and elimination efforts are currently facing multiple global challenges such as climate and land use change, invasive vectors, and disruptions in healthcare delivery. Although relationships between malaria risks and socioeconomic factors have been widely demonstrated, the strengths and variability of these associations have not been quantified across SSA. In this study, we used data from population-based malaria indicator surveys in SSA countries to assess spatial trends in relative and absolute socioeconomic inequalities, analyzed as social (mothers’ highest educational level—MHEL) and economic (wealth index—WI) inequalities in malaria prevalence. To capture spatial variations in socioeconomic (represented by both WI and MHEL) inequalities in malaria, we calculated both the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) in each administrative region. We also conducted cluster analyses based on Local Indicator of Spatial Association (LISA) to consider the spatial auto-correlation in SII and RII across regions and countries. A total of 47,404 participants in 1874 Primary Sampling Units (PSU) were analyzed across the 13 SSA countries. Our multi-country assessment provides estimations of strong socioeconomic inequalities between and within SSA countries. Such within- and between- countries inequalities varied greatly according to the socioeconomic metric and the scale used. Countries located in Eastern Africa showed a higher median Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII) in malaria prevalence relative to WI in comparison to countries in other locations across SSA. Pockets of high SII in malaria prevalence in relation to WI and MHEL were observed in the East part of Africa. This study was able to map this wide range of malaria inequality metrics at a very local scale and highlighted the spatial clustering patterns of pockets of high and low malaria inequality values.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Fornace, Dr Kimberly
Authors: Carrasco-Escobar, G., Fornace, K., and Benmarhnia, T.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Biodiversity, One Health & Veterinary Medicine
Journal Name:Scientific Reports
Publisher:Nature Research
ISSN:2045-2322
ISSN (Online):2045-2322
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Scientific Reports 11: 15121
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License
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