Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans and livestock in the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile

Acosta-Jamett, G., Cleaveland, S. , Cunningham, A.A., Bronsvoort, B.M.d. and Craig, P.S. (2010) Echinococcus granulosus infection in humans and livestock in the Coquimbo region, north-central Chile. Veterinary Parasitology, 169(1-2), pp. 102-110. (doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.12.009)

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Publisher's URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2009.12.009

Abstract

Cyst echinococcosis (CE) is one of the most important zoonosis in Chile, where studies have focussed mainly in moist southern regions. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) in livestock and humans in the semiarid Coquimbo region in north-central Chile. A review of all surgical cases of CE in humans reported in the Elqui, LimarÆ and Choapa provinces in Coquimbo region for the period comprising 1995-2006 was obtained. In addition, a retrospective study of CE covering condemnation records from slaughterhouses of these provinces from the same period was carried out. The surgical incidence of CE in humans ranged between 2.3 and 8.5 cases per 105 people, with more cases reported in provinces with a higher percentage of rural inhabitants (LimarÆ and Choapa). A total of 174,034 cattle, 22,208 goats, 35,404 sheep, 25,355 swine and 9391 equines were examined during the period. Higher prevalence of CE was detected in cattle (24%), followed by swine (14%), sheep (11%), goats (6%), and equines (9%). More cases of CE in livestock were also found in provinces with higher rural population. The overall trend of the prevalence of CE for each livestock species across years was a significant downward one, except for swine in Elqui and sheep and swine in Choapa. Cattle showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui, in kidney in LimarÆ and in lungs in Choapa. Swine showed similar prevalence by organs in all provinces. Sheep showed higher prevalence of CE in liver in Elqui and LimarÆ and lower prevalence in Choapa. Goats presented higher prevalence of CE in kidney in all provinces, and equines had higher prevalence of CE in liver in the provinces where animals were slaughtered. Further studied are needed to assess whether these differences are due to different strains affecting these species or due to ecological factors. When analyzing the CE prevalence of each species within each province, a negative correlation between prevalence of CE in goats and rainfall in the LimarÆ province was found. This could be attributed to changes in management practices and/or ecological factors. This study shows that surveillance of CE at slaughterhouses combined with the analyses of incidence in humans can be used to detect areas with a higher risk of infection. Improvements in record-keeping of infected animals at slaughterhouses are proposed in order to trace back farms where infection was most likely acquired.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Cleaveland, Professor Sarah
Authors: Acosta-Jamett, G., Cleaveland, S., Cunningham, A.A., Bronsvoort, B.M.d., and Craig, P.S.
Subjects:Q Science > QR Microbiology
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Infection Immunity and Inflammation
Journal Name:Veterinary Parasitology
ISSN:0304-4017
ISSN (Online):1873-2550
Published Online:21 December 2009

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