Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation as a response to long-lasting insecticidal net deployment in malaria vectors in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso

Sanou, A., Nelli, L. , Guelbéogo, W. M., Cissé, F., Tapsoba, M., Ouédraogo, P., Sagnon, N.’f., Ranson, H., Matthiopoulos, J. and Ferguson, H. M. (2021) Insecticide resistance and behavioural adaptation as a response to long-lasting insecticidal net deployment in malaria vectors in the Cascades region of Burkina Faso. Scientific Reports, 11, 17569. (doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-96759-w) (PMID:34475470) (PMCID:PMC8413378)

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Abstract

The decline in malaria across Africa has been largely attributed to vector control using long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, this intervention has prompted widespread insecticide resistance (IR) and been associated with changes in mosquito behaviour that reduce their contact with LLINs. The relative importance and rate at which IR and behavioural adaptations emerge are poorly understood. We conducted surveillance of mosquito behaviour and IR at 12 sites in Burkina Faso to assess the magnitude and temporal dynamics of insecticide, biting and resting behaviours in vectors in the 2-year period following mass LLIN distribution. Insecticide resistance was present in all vector populations and increased rapidly over the study period. In contrast, no longitudinal shifts in LLIN-avoidance behaviours (earlier or outdoor biting and resting) were detected. There was a moderate but statistically significant shift in vector species composition from Anopheles coluzzii to Anopheles gambiae which coincided with a reduction in the proportion of bites preventable by LLINs; possibly driven by between-species variation in behaviour. These findings indicate that adaptations based on insecticide resistance arise and intensify more rapidly than behavioural shifts within mosquito vectors. However, longitudinal shifts in mosquito vector species composition were evident within 2 years following a mass LLIN distribution. This ecological shift was characterized by a significant increase in the exophagic species (An. gambiae) and coincided with a predicted decline in the degree of protection expected from LLINs. Although human exposure fell through the study period due to reducing vector densities and infection rates, such ecological shifts in vector species along with insecticide resistance were likely to have eroded the efficacy of LLINs. While both adaptations impact malaria control, the rapid increase of the former indicates this strategy develops more quickly in response to selection from LLINS. However, interventions targeting both resistance strategies will be needed.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:SANOU, ANTOINE and Ferguson, Professor Heather and Nelli, Dr Luca and Matthiopoulos, Professor Jason
Authors: Sanou, A., Nelli, L., Guelbéogo, W. M., Cissé, F., Tapsoba, M., Ouédraogo, P., Sagnon, N.’f., Ranson, H., Matthiopoulos, J., and Ferguson, H. M.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Biodiversity Animal Health and Comparative Medicine
Journal Name:Scientific Reports
Publisher:Nature Research
ISSN:2045-2322
ISSN (Online):2045-2322
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Scientific Reports 11: 17569
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons License

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Project CodeAward NoProject NamePrincipal InvestigatorFunder's NameFunder RefLead Dept
172570Improving the efficacy of malaria prevention in an insecticide resistant AfricaHeather FergusonWellcome Trust (WELLCOTR)200222/A/15/ZInstitute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine