Comparison between four published definitions of hyposmia in Parkinson's disease

Kanavou, S., Pitz, V. , Lawton, M. A., Malek, N., Grosset, K. A., Morris, H. R., Ben-Shlomo, Y. and Grosset, D. G. (2021) Comparison between four published definitions of hyposmia in Parkinson's disease. Brain and Behavior, 11(8), e2258. (doi: 10.1002/brb3.2258) (PMID:34190430) (PMCID:PMC8413742)

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Abstract

Objectives Hyposmia is a common feature of Parkinson's disease (PD), yet there is no standard method to define it. A comparison of four published methods was performed to explore and highlight differences. Materials and methods Olfactory testing was performed in 2097 cases of early PD in two prospective studies. Olfaction was assessed using various cut-offs, usually corrected by age and/or gender. Control data were simulated based on the age and gender structure of the PD cases and published normal ranges. Association with age, gender, and disease duration was explored by method and study cohort. Prevalence of hyposmia was compared with the age and gender-matched simulated controls. Between method agreement was measured using Cohen's kappa and Gwet's AC1. Results Hyposmia was present in between 69.1% and 97.9% of cases in Tracking Parkinson's cases, and between 62.2% and 90.8% of cases in the Parkinson's Progression Marker Initiative, depending on the method. Between-method agreement varied (kappa 0.09–0.80, AC1 0.55–0.86). The absolute difference between PD cases and simulated controls was similar for men and women across methods. Age and male gender were positively associated with hyposmia (p < .001, all methods). Odds of having hyposmia increased with advancing age (OR:1.06, 95% CI:1.03, 1.10, p < .001). Longer disease duration had a negative impact on overall olfactory performance. Conclusions Different definitions of hyposmia give different results using the same dataset. A standardized definition of hyposmia in PD is required, adjusting for age and gender, to account for the background decline in olfactory performance with ageing, especially in men.

Item Type:Articles
Status:Published
Refereed:Yes
Glasgow Author(s) Enlighten ID:Grosset, Dr Donald and Pitz, Vanessa and Grosset, Dr Katherine
Authors: Kanavou, S., Pitz, V., Lawton, M. A., Malek, N., Grosset, K. A., Morris, H. R., Ben-Shlomo, Y., and Grosset, D. G.
College/School:College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology
College of Medical Veterinary and Life Sciences > School of Medicine, Dentistry & Nursing
Journal Name:Brain and Behavior
Publisher:Wiley
ISSN:2162-3279
ISSN (Online):2157-9032
Published Online:30 June 2021
Copyright Holders:Copyright © 2021 The Authors
First Published:First published in Brain and Behavior 11(8): e2258
Publisher Policy:Reproduced under a Creative Commons licence

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